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Oreg. was claimed for Britain in 1778 by James Cook and for the US in 1791 by Robert Gray. The Adams–onis Treaty settled the southern boundary with Calif. In 1818 the US and Britain agreed to a joint occupation, with the Columbia River serving as a buffer between them. US settlers began arriving along the Oregon Trail in 1843. The joint occupation fell apart in 1845 amid US calls of Fifty-Four, Forty or Fight, but Britain recognized the US claim to Oreg. and modern Wash. in 1846. Oreg. was made a territory on 14 August 1848 and the 33rd state on 14 February 1859. A minor gold rush occurredalong the southwestern coast in the 1850s. It was the scene of the Rogue River, and Modoc wars, and Nez Perce campaign.
In 1860 Oreg. had 52,465 residents, of whom all but 128 were white and 10 percent were foreign-born; it ranked 36th in population, 33rd in the value of its farmland and livestock, and 32nd in manufactures. In the Civil War, Oreg. furnished 1,810 men for the USA army. Rapid development came after Oreg. was linked to the system of transcontinental railroads in the 1880s. In 1900 Oreg. had 413,536 residents (95.4 percent white, 1.2 percent Indian, 2.5 percent Chinese, 0.6 percent Japanese, and 0.3 percent black), of whom 68 percent were rural and 16 percent were foreign-born; it ranked 35th among the states in population, 32nd in agricultural products, and 35th in manufactures. Large-scale lumbering began in 1900 under the Weyerhauser Co. and by 1938 Oreg. was the leading producer of forest products. Rapid urban growth further diversified the economy. In 1990, Oreg. was the 30th largest state and had 2,842,321 inhabitants (91 percent white, 2 percent black, 4 percent Hispanic, 1 percent Indian, and 2 percent Asian), of whom 69 percent were urban and 4.9 percent were foreign-born. Manufacturing and mining employed 24 percent of workers.