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affirmative action

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affirmative action

This concept originated as a means of eliminating racial prejudice in hiring to comply with Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (1964) either voluntarily or in consequence of a lawsuit. By providing compensatory advantages to disadvantaged minorities or fixing specific goals to hire nonwhites, affirmative action plans sparked complaints that they inflicted reverse discrimination upon whites by hiring according to racial quotas regardless of personal merit. The Supreme Court ruled on this issue in Regents of University of California v.  Bakke, United Steelworkers of America et al. v. Weber, and  Wygant v.  Jackson Board of Education.