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Connecticut

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Connecticut

European settlement began in 1633, when Dutch from New Netherland placed a trading post at modern Hartford in June and English Puritans founded towns at Windsor and Wethersfield in September. In 1637 Thomas Hooker settled Hartford, which the Dutch then left. In 1636–7 the Pequot War ended Indian resistance to settlement. In 1639 these three river towns agreed to govern themselves under the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. By 1662, 15 towns later founded in the Connecticut valley had adopted the Fundamental Orders, which were never confirmed by a royal charter.
In 1638 Puritans under John Davenport founded New Haven. In 1643 Davenport's followers in eight towns established the colony of New Haven in southwestern Conn., but never obtained a royal charter. After the Stuart Restoration, John Winthrop, Jr., won legal standing from Charles II for Conn. as a charter colony on 3 May 1662. The charter gave Conn. jurisdiction over New Haven, which was then annexed. Conn. was under the Dominion of New England's authority (1687–9). In 1700 it had 26,000 colonists, of whom 450 were slaves.
Conn. was the sixth largest state in 1775 and provided eight of 80 Continental regiments. No major campaigns occurred there in the Revolution, but 39 military actions took place. It abolished slavery in 1784. It was the fifth state to ratify the Constitution, on 9 January 1788. In 1800 it was the eighth largest state with 251,002 inhabitants, of whom 97 percent were white and 90 percent of English-Welsh stock. It disestablished the Congregational Church in 1818.
Conn. emerged as an early center for manufacturing after 1800, especially for textiles and firearms, but from 1800 to 1860, its population grew only 83 percent to 460,147. In 1860 it had 460,147 inhabitants, of whom 98 percent were white and 17 percent were foreign-born; it ranked 24th among the states in population, 24th in the value of farmland and livestock, and fifth in manufactures. In the Civil War, it furnished 55,864 USA troops (including 1,764 blacks).
Its population doubled from 1860 to 1900, when it ranked as the 29th state in size. In 1900 it was 30 percent rural and had 908,420 residents, of whom 98 percent were white and 26 percent were foreign-born; it ranked 38th among the states in the value of its agricultural goods and 11th in manufactures. The state's economy grew strongly during 1950–70, when it gained 448,000 residents through inmigration that was stimulated by its concentration of defense industries. By 1990, Conn. ranked 28th among states, with 3,287,116 people (84 percent white, 8 percent black, 7 percent Hispanic, 1 percent Asian), of whom 92 percent were urban and 8.5 percent were foreign-born; manufacturing or mining employed 27 percent of the work force.
Connecticut Compromise
Connecticut Compromise    On 12 July 1787, the Constitutional Convention voted on whether legislative representation should be based on population or on an equal vote among the states. The members agreed to give each state equal representation in the upper house and apportion the lower house by population, based on the total of all free persons and 3/5 of all slaves. This solution, primarily devised by the Conn. delegation, was the convention's turning point and enabled the small states to support the Constitution.