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First Amendment

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First Amendment

Submitted to the states on 25 September 1789, last ratified by Va. on 15 December 1791, and officially proclaimed on 30 December 1791, it prohibited the federal government from preferring one church over another or interfering with the free exercise of religious beliefs. Freedom of speech, of assembly, of the press, and of petitioning were also protected. Its provisions were extended to state court proceedings by Gitlow v. New York (freedom of speech and press), De Jonge v. Oregon (freedom of assembly and petition), Cantwell v. Connecticut (freedom of religion), and Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Township (separation of church and state).
The Supreme Court interpreted rights of assembly or association in  American Communications Assn., CIO et al. v. Douds,  National Association for the Advancement of Colored People v. Alabama ex rel. Patterson, Scales v. United States, and Elrod v. Burns. It ruled on freedom of press or speech in Schenck v. United States, Lovell v. Griffin, Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire, Dennis et al. v. United States, Yates v. United States, New York Times v. Sullivan, and American Booksellers Association v. Hudnut. It decided issues of religious liberty in West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, Engel v. Vitale, and Lemon v. Kurtzman.