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Historical Glossary

There are 116 entries in this glossary.
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Addyston Pipe and Steel Company v. United States

In 1899 the Supreme Court held that collusion by businesses to split markets among themselves fell within federal regulation of interstate commerce and violated the Sherman Antitrust Act. The decision partly offset the restrictive interpretation of that act in United States v. E. C. Knight Company.

Adena Culture

This culture flourished from 700 BC to AD 200 in the eastern Ohio River valley and was centered in southern Ohio. The Adena was the first Indian society east of the Mississippi to settle in sedentary villages, establish widespread trade networks, and construct large earthworks for burial sites. The Adena coexisted with, and was succeeded by, the Hopewell Culture.

Adkins v. Children's Hospital

On 9 April 1923, the Supreme Court struck down (5–3) a 1918 US law allowing the District of Columbia Wage Board to set minimum salaries for women and children, as a price-fixing measure violating the Fifth and Fourteenth amendments' guarantee to negotiate free contracts. On 1 June 1936, in Morehead v. New York ex rel. Tipaldo, the Court ruled (5–4) that all minimum wage laws violated due process. West Coast Hotel Company v. Parrish overruled these decisions.

Administration of Justice Act

 (20 May 1774)    Parliament passed this law in the aftermath of the Boston Tea Party. In cases where a royal soldier or civil officer was accused of a crime punishable by death in Mass., the trial could be transferred to Britain or another colony if the governor believed public prejudices would not permit a fair trial in Mass. It was dubbed the “Murder Act” in the colonies and considered one of the Intolerable Acts.

Admiralty courts

Under British law, the High Court of Admiralty had jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases concerning foreign trade and the merchant marine. Beyond London, Vice-admiralty courts heard maritime cases. All verdicts were given by a judge sitting without a jury. Vice-admiralty courts were established in the thirteen colonies after 1696; although they had jurisdiction over the Navigation acts, they did not try smuggling cases—which were heard in common law courts with juries—until the Sugar Act.