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Historical Glossary

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The president's cabinet consists of the heads of executive departments. The original cabinet consisted of the Departments of State, the Treasury, and War, plus the attorney general, but not the postmaster general. The kitchen cabinet emerged in the 1830s. An informal black cabinet evolved in the 1930s. The “inner cabinet” includes the four most influential department heads (of the Treasury, State, Justice, and Defense), who work most closely with the president. By 1993, the cabinet had grown to 14 departments.

Cabot, John

(b. Genoa[?], Italy, ca. 1455; d. in the north Atlantic, 1498)    Born Giovanni Caboto, Cabot established himself as a merchant-mariner in Bristol, England, about 1490. Commissioned by Henry VII to make a voyage of discovery for England, he left Bristol on 2 May 1497 and commanded the first European ship to reach the North American mainland. After sighting Newfoundland or Cape Breton Island on 24 June, he sailed to New England. England's territorial claims to North America derived from his discovery. In 1498 he was lost at sea on another transatlantic voyage.

Cabot, Sebastian

(b. Venice, Italy, ca. 1483; d. London, England, 1557)    Son of John Cabot, Sebastian may have joined his father's first voyage of 1497. In 1508–9, he made the earliest English voyage searching for the Northwest Passage. He entered Spain's service in 1512, but returned to England in 1548. He was Muscovy Company president (1553–7).

Cabrillo's explorations

On 27 June 1542, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo began the first Spanish voyage along the Calif. coast and claimed the region for Spain. Cabrillo died on 3 January 1543, and Bartolomé Ferrelo continued exploring until March 1543, when he turned back near southern Oreg.
Caddoan languages.

Caddoan languages

This family of Indian languages was spoken by groups west of the Mississippi River from La. to Nebr. Its major subdivisions included the languages of the Pawnee-Arikara Indians, the Caddo, and Wichita Indians.