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Historical Glossary

There are 95 entries in this glossary.
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East Florida

Acquired by Britain by the Seven Years' War, East Florida became a royal colony, bounded by Ga. and the Apalachicola River. From 1763 to 1771, it received 300 American or British settlers. Another 1,300 immigrants from Greece or Italy founded New Smyrna in 1768, most of whom died of swamp fevers. Spain regained it by the Treaty of Paris (1783), and re-designated its western border as the Perdido River. It was the site of the first Seminole War, which led to its cession by the Adams–Onis Treaty. 

East Jersey

On 4 July 1664, anticipating the conquest of New Netherland, Charles II granted modern N.J. to John Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. After Berkeley sold his proprietary rights in 1674, Carteret received title to East Jersey. Frustrated by problems of governing and collecting quitrents from the settlers, Carteret's heirs sold his title to the proprietors of East Jersey on 1 February 1681. The proprietors stirred widespread resentment by challenging the validity of the settlers' land titles, and their authority crumbled when rioting convulsed the colony in 1698–1701. They surrendered East Jersey to the Crown on 15 April 1702. 

Eastern Solomons, battle of the

On 24–5 August 1942, Vice Admiral Frank Fletcher's task force (2 battleships, 5 cruisers, 8 destroyers) intercepted Admiral Chuichi Nagumo's convoy (3 carriers, 2 battleships, 1 cruiser, 7 destroyers) ferrying Japanese troops to Guadalcanal. The battle gave the US daytime control of local sealanes, but left the Japanese dominant in night operations. US losses: 20 planes. Japanese losses: 1 carrier, 1 cruiser, 1 destroyer, 1 troop transport, 60 planes. 

Eastman, George

(b. Waterville, N.Y., 12 July 1854; d. Rochester, N.Y., 14 March 1932)    He matured in Rochester, where he began experimenting with photography in the 1870s. In 1884, he revolutionized photography, which still depended on making prints from hard plates, by patenting a flexible film that could be loaded as a roll inside a camera, which he called a Kodak. In 1891 he discovered how to shield film with black paper so that a camera could be loaded during daylight, and the next year he renamed his firm the Eastman Kodak Co. Eastman's innovations enabled the US to dominate the industry, and his ongoing program of advanced research allowed Americans to set international standards for technical excellence. He adopted enlightened labor policies and gave away $100,000,000 to worthy causes, especially higher education. 

Eaton [,Peggy,] Affair

n 1829 Andrew Jackson's administration became polarized when the wives of his cabinet, led by Mrs John Calhoun, snubbed Peggy O'Neale Eaton, wife of Secretary of War John Eaton. Peggy was considered unfit company because of rumors that her previous husband had committed suicide on account of an adulterous affair between her and Eaton. Jackson sympathized with Peggy and took her side, and so this minor disagreement played a major role in alienating him from Calhoun and improving his relationship with Secretary of State Martin van Buren, who was a bachelor and showed much solicitude toward Mrs Eaton. Jackson reorganized his cabinet in April 1831.