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Historical Glossary

There are 133 entries in this glossary.
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Fair Deal

Beginning in September 1945, Harry S Truman had recommended that Congress enact numerous laws concerning employment conditions and social problems, to which he gave the name Fair Deal on 5 January 1949. This agenda was intended as a second-generation New Deal, and included a higher minimum wage, broader coverage for Social Security (see Social Security Administration), pro-labor legislation, federal subsidies for public housing, sponsorship of scientific research, a system of national health care, civil rights legislation, expanded soil conservation programs, agricultural subsidies, federal grants to education, and renewed spending on dams, power-generating stations, and other public works. Republicans took over both houses of Congress in 1946, and so much of the Fair Deal languished until Truman's election triumph in 1948, when Democrats regained Congress. Congress then provided money for the Housing Act (1949), hydroelectric power stations, western land reclamation, farm subsidies, and it created the National Science Foundation. Truman failed to win aid for national health insurance, education, civil rights legislation, and either a fair employment commission or repeal of the Taft–Hartley Act. 

Fair Labor Standards Act

(25 June 1938) Congress set the minimum wage at $0.40 an hour, established the 40-hour workweek with wages of 150 percent for overtime, outlawed gainful employment for children under 16, and excluded anyone under 18 from dangerous work. It affected 63,000,000 full-time and part-time workers, of whom 750,000 received immediate raises. (Domestic help, farm laborers, and certain small businesses were exempted.) The Supreme Court upheld it in United States v. Darby Lumber Company. It was amended to forbid sex discrimination by the Equal Pay Act (1963). 

Fallen Timbers, battle of (Ohio)

On 20 August 1794, Major General Anthony Wayne's 1,000 regulars and 1,400 Ky. militia defeated 1,500 Indians and 60 Canadians two miles from the British Fort Miamis. US losses: 33 killed, 100 wounded. Indian and Canadian losses: 19 killed. Wayne's victory, along with his occupation of Forts Defiance and Recovery in the heart of hostile territory, cowed the Indians into signing the first treaty of Greenville and induced the British to surrender all military posts on US soil by Jay's Treaty. 

Farm Credit Act (16 June 1933)

This law consolidated the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank (see Agricultural Credits Act), Federal Farm Board, Federal Farm Loan Board, and other credit agencies for agricultural production and marketing, into a network of local lending institutions. Its operations were managed by the Farm Credit Administration. 

Farm Credit Administration (FCA)

Created by executive order on 27 March 1933, this agency assumed control of federal programs under the Farm Credit Act and the Farm Mortgage Foreclosure Act. By June 1934, the FCA had refinanced over 20 percent of all farm mortgages. By 31 December 1940, it had lent a total of $6.87 billion, of which over half had been repaid. In 1939 the FCA ceased to have independent status and became a branch of the Department of Agriculture.
farm depression of the 1920s