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Historical Glossary

There are 2268 entries in this glossary.
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Arizona

On 28 April 1700, Fr Eusebio Kino dedicated the first mission in Ariz. with a resident priest at San Javier del Bac near Tucson. The area contained fewer than 2,000 Spanish-speaking people when acquired by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Gadsden Purchase added its southern border. Anglo-American settlement was stimulated when silver mines were opened at Tubac in 1856. In the Civil War, CSA troops briefly occupied Ariz. in 1862 on an invitation from pro-CSA citizens at Tucson and Mesilla. Washington detached Ariz. from N.Mex. as a separate territory on 24 February 1863, when it had about 4,200 whites. Apache campaigns were waged in 1862–86. Mining for silver and copper, cattle ranching, and sheep grazing dominated the economy.
In 1900 Ariz. was 48th in population with 122,931 residents (approx. 40 percent white, 35 percent Hispanic, 1 percent black, 22 percent Indian, and 1 percent Chinese), of whom 84 percent were rural, 11 percent Mexican-born, and 9 percent other foreign-born; it ranked 47th in farm produce and 41st in manufactures. It became the 48th state on 14 February 1912. Rapid urbanization doubled the population and diversified the economy from 1950 to 1970. In 1990 Ariz. was the 25th state in size and had 3,665,228 inhabitants (72 percent white, 3 percent black, 19 percent Hispanic, 5 percent Indian, and 1 percent Asian), of whom 79 percent were urban and 7.6 percent foreign-born. Manufacturing employed 13 percent of workers and mining 8 percent.

Arkansas

In 1686, near the mouth of the Arkansas River, the French built Fort Arkansas, the first permanent white settlement. It became part of the US by the Louisiana Purchase, a territory on 2 March 1819, and the 25th state on 15 June 1836. Cotton dominated its economy and by 1860 Ark. had 435,450 inhabitants, of whom 26 percent were slaves and under 1 percent were foreign-born; it ranked 23rd among the states in the value of its farmland and livestock and 33rd in manufactures.
It became the eighth CSA state on 6 May 1861. In the Civil War, it furnished 60,000 CSA troops and 13,815 USA soldiers (8,289 white and 5,526 black). Ark. was the site of 336 military engagements. Union forces won control over much of the state after the battle of Pea Ridge.
By March 1864, a tenth of voters had sworn Union allegiance and Abraham Lincoln instituted a provisional civilian government, which abolished slavery. White supremacists took over the legislature in 1866 and passed a black code (see black codes). Congress imposed military rule on 2 March 1867, then restored congressional representation and self-government on 22 June 1868. Republican control of Ark. ended six-and-a-half years later, on 10 November 1874. The state disfranchised most blacks by poll tax and legislated racial segregation after 1900.
In 1900 it was the 25th state in size and had 1,311,564 inhabitants, of whom 92 percent were rural, 28 percent were black, and 1 percent were foreign-born; it ranked 22nd among states in the value of its agricultural goods and 38th in manufactures. From 1920 to 1970, it lost 1,239,100 residents, mostly blacks moving to northern cities, and its racial composition shifted significantly. During the civil rights movement, it actively resisted integration under Governor Orval Faubus and US troops were dispatched in the Little Rock desegregation violence. Statewide school desegregation was not achieved until the late 1960s. Ark. ranked 33rd among states by 1990, when its population was 2,350,725 (82 percent white, 16 percent black, 1 percent Hispanic, and 1 percent Asian), of whom 40 percent were urban and 1.1 percent were foreign-born. Manufacturing and mining employed 29 percent of workers.

Armistice

Combat in World War I was ended by an armistice signed at 5 a.m. 11 November, and designed to end fighting at the symbolic moment of 11 a.m.: the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month. Its terms stipulated: (1) German withdrawal from France, Belgium, and the west bank of the Rhine; (2) German surrender of Rhine crossings at Cologne, Koblenz, and Mainz; (3) destruction of German planes, tanks, and heavy artillery; (4) surrender of German submarines and internment of surface warships; (5) continued blockade of German ports until a formal peace; (6) exchange of prisoners of war and civilian deportees; (7) transfer of 150,000 rail cars, 5,000 locomotives, and 5,000 trucks to the Allies; (8) German renunciation of treaties with its military allies; (9) recognition of Allied rights to demand war reparations.

Army Appropriations Act

(2 March 1867) Congress added a rider to this law (which Andrew Johnson vetoed) intended to forestall the president from hindering its policies on Reconstruction by forbidding him to issue any orders for military forces in the field except through the army's commander in chief. (This rider was an unconstitutional infringement of presidential powers.) Two of the 11 charges in Johnson's impeachment trial alleged that he violated this law by giving direct orders to General William Emory.

Arnold, Benedict

(b. Norwich, Conn., 14 January 1741; d. London, England, 14 June 1801)    He served as a private in the Seven Years' War. He was co-commander at Fort Ticonderoga's capture (1775), wounded at the second battle of Quebec, and made brigadier general in January 1776. He won important victories at Valcour Island and Bemis Heights, at which he was seriously wounded. Although a major general with a distinguished war record, Arnold was not rewarded with a major command, but stationed in Philadelphia (where he married a girl with Tory connections, see Tories) and then assigned to a fortress at West Point, N.Y. Frustrated by lack of US recognition, Arnold schemed to surrender West Point to the British, but fled to enemy lines when his plot was discovered on 25 September 1780. Arnold was made a British brigadier general and led Tory raids on Conn. and Va. He became a merchant in Canada after the war, then moved to England in 1791.