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Historical Glossary

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Adams, Samuel

(b. Boston, Mass., 27 September 1722; d. Boston, Mass., 2 October 1803)    By 1764, Adams had become the dominant influence over Boston's town meeting. By his shrewd use of demonstrations and written propaganda, he made Boston the principal center of resistance to unconstitutional parliamentary measures. He helped found the Sons of Liberty, created the committees of correspondence and published the inflammatory account of Boston's occupation by British troops, A Journal of the Times. Recognizing before any other major colonial leader that American rights would never be assured under British rule, he pressed resolutely for the Declaration of Independence at the first and second Continental Congresses. He was governor of Mass. (1794–7).

Adamson [Eight-hour] Act

(3 September 1916)    In 1916 the largest railway unions threatened to strike on 4 September unless an eight-hour workday was instituted. Urged by Woodrow Wilson to avoid nationwide transportation disruption, a day before the strike date Congress set an eight-hour workday, plus time-and-a-half pay after that, for interstate railroad workers. Wilson v. New upheld the law.

Adams–Onis Treaty

To end tensions caused by the first Seminole War and establish the Louisiana Purchase's precise southern line, John Q. Adams negotiated this treaty with Luis de Onis, Spain's ambassador at Washington. Spain agreed to cede both East and West Florida to the US. The US gave up its claim to much of east and central Tex. under the Louisiana Purchase, and accepted the Sabine River as La.'s border. Spain and the US fixed their western boundary as the Red and Arkansas rivers, north along the Rockies' eastern slope, and then west along the 42nd parallel to the Pacific. The US gained 72,000 square miles, including Fla. and most of the Santa Fe Trail; it also reinforced the US claim to Oregon. Adams and Onis signed the agreement on 22 February 1819. The Senate ratified it on 19 February 1821, and the treaty went into effect three days later.

Addyston Pipe and Steel Company v. United States

In 1899 the Supreme Court held that collusion by businesses to split markets among themselves fell within federal regulation of interstate commerce and violated the Sherman Antitrust Act. The decision partly offset the restrictive interpretation of that act in United States v. E. C. Knight Company.

Adena Culture

This culture flourished from 700 BC to AD 200 in the eastern Ohio River valley and was centered in southern Ohio. The Adena was the first Indian society east of the Mississippi to settle in sedentary villages, establish widespread trade networks, and construct large earthworks for burial sites. The Adena coexisted with, and was succeeded by, the Hopewell Culture.