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Historical Glossary

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Algonquian languages

The largest family of Indian languages north of Mexico, Algonquian was spoken over much of eastern Canada, New England, the Atlantic coast north of S.C., the Ohio valley–Great Lakes region, and isolated parts of the Great Plains. Its major subdivisions are the languages of the Abnaki-Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Micmac, Cree-Montagnais, Algonkin, Massachusett, Narragansett, Wampanoag, Mahican-Pequot, Delaware (Lenni Lenape), Powhatan, Shawnee, Miami, Kickapoo-Fox-Sauk, Potawatomi, Illinois, Chippewa, Ojibwa-Ottawa, Menominee, Arapaho, Cheyenne, Blackfoot-Piegan, and Gros Ventre Indians.

Alien and Sedition acts

With the US then engaged in an undeclared naval war with France, and French agents and spies known to be operating in the country, Congress declared that national security required passage of the Alien [Friends] Act, Alien Enemies Act, Naturalization Act (1798), and Sedition Act. Although enacted at a time when war with France seemed imminent, most of the laws were drafted so that they could also be used to muzzle Democratic party criticism of the Federalist party in the 1800 election.

Alien Enemies Act

(6 July 1798)    This law authorized the US to compel foreign citizens of an enemy power to register with the US in wartime, and provided further powers to detain or banish any aliens deemed dangerous. It went into effect in the War of 1812.

Alien [Friends] Act

(25 June 1798)    This law authorized the president to deport foreign citizens in peacetime if he believed them to be engaged in espionage or sowing treason among US citizens. Neither legal hearings nor proof of guilt was required. It was applied against several immigrant editors of newspapers supporting the Democratic party before it expired on 25 June 1800.


The tie or obligation of a subject to his Prince or government; the duty of fidelity to a king, government or state.  Every native or citizen owes allegiance to the government under which he is born.  This is called natural or implied allegiance, which arises from the connection of a person with the society in which he is born, and his duty to be a faithful subject, independent of any express promise.  Express allegiance, is that obligation which proceeds from an express promise, or oath of fidelity.

Local or temporary allegiance is due from an alien to the government or state in which he resides.

Webster's 1828