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Historical Glossary

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Anasazi Culture

This culture (Anasazi means “Ancient Ones”) began emerging about 100 BC around the modern juncture of Ariz., N.Mex., Colo., and Utah. It paralleled the Mogollon Culture in creating sedentary agricultural villages and developing handcrafts. The Anasazi were the most advanced Indian basket makers to AD 750, and were the first Indians to build pueblos from stone or adobe, instead of pit houses, after 750. Between 1276 and 1299, an extended drought led to the abandonment of mesa-top pueblos like Mesa Verde, Colo., and the people's resettlement along the Rio Grande in N.Mex.

Andersonville Prison (Ga.)

This was the most infamous of prisoner of war camps during the Civil War. While operational from February 1864 to April 1865, it confined only enlisted men. In mid-1864, its 26 acres held 32,899 Union prisoners. Malnourishment, contaminated water, inadequate medical care, and insufficient housing led to monthly death rates that peaked at 3,000 in August 1864. The US later identified a minimum of 12,912 soldiers who died there. Hanged on 10 November 1865 for abetting these deaths, commandant Henry Wirz was the only person executed by the US for serving the Confederacy.

Anglican church

This church was the colonial extension of the Church of England; it never had a resident bishop and was under the archbishop of Canterbury's supervision. Its first parish was founded at Jamestown, Va., in 1607. The number of parishes grew from 41 in 1660 to 111 in 1700, and 246 in 1740, but many were always vacant. It became the established church in every southern colony and four N.Y. counties. The Great Awakening influenced many of its communicants to join the Presbyterian or Baptist churches. In 1776 there were 383 Anglican parishes with 500,000 members (25 percent of all whites); 54 percent of its parishes were in the South, 25 percent in the middle colonies, and 21 percent in New England. Because most Anglican clergy were Tories who left the country during the Revolution, the church declined greatly after the war. Va. and Md. disestablished it in 1776, N.C., Ga., and N.Y. in 1777, and S.C. in 1778. It was revived as the Protestant Episcopal church.

Anglo-Dutch War, first

In July 1652, England declared war on the Netherlands. In June 1653, Mass. vetoed a planned attack upon New Netherland by the United Colonies of New England, which required unanimous consent for war. Conn. agents failed to incite English towns on Long Island to rebel against Dutch rule, but seized the Dutch West India Company's trading post of Fort Good Hope (near Hartford) on 5 July 1653 and refused to return it at the end of the war. An English fleet sent to capture New Amsterdam was recalled at Boston with news that hostilities had ended in April 1654.

Anglo-Dutch War, second

In December 1664, the Netherlands and England went to war. On 7 September 1664, Peter Stuyvesant had surrendered New Netherland without resistance to a task force of four frigates, 300 redcoats, and 2,000 Yankee militia at New Amsterdam. English forces peacefully occupied Fort Orange (Albany) on 20 September and took Fort Casimir, Del., by storm on 10 October. In June 1667, a Dutch warship captured 19 merchant vessels and a Royal Navy frigate in Va.'s James River. On 21 July 1667, the peace of Breda ended the war and awarded New Netherland to England.