The Constitution of Nepal Part 1, Preliminary 1. Constitution as the fundamental law: (1) This constitution is the fundamental law of Nepal. All laws inconsistent with this constitution shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void. (2) It shall be the duty of every person to uphold this constitution. 2. Sovereignty and state authority: The sovereignty and state authority of Nepal are vested in Nepali people. The use of which shall be as provided for in this constitution. 3. Nation Having multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious, multi-cultural characteristics with common aspirations of people living in diverse geographical regions, and being committed to and united by a bond of allegiance to national independence, territorial integrity, national interest and prosperity of Nepal, all the Nepali people collectively constitute the nation. 4. State of Nepal: (1) Nepal is an independent, indivisible, sovereign, secular, inclusive democratic, socialism-oriented federal democratic republican state. Explanation: For the purpose of this article, ‘secular’ means protection of religion and culture being practiced since ancient times and religious and cultural freedom. (2) The territory of Nepal shall comprise: (a) the territory existing at the commencement of this constitution, and (b) such other territory as may be acquired after the commencement of this constitution. 5. National interest: (1) Independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, nationality, autonomy, self-respect, protection of rights and interests of Nepali people, protection of boundaries, and economic progress and prosperity, shall be the fundamental subjects of Nepal’s national interest. (2) Act and character against national interest shall be punishable by Federal law. 6. Language of the nation: All the mother tongues spoken in Nepal shall be the national language. 7. Language of official transaction: (1) The Nepali language written in Devanagiri script shall be the language of official business in Nepal. (2) In addition to Nepali language, a province shall select one or more national language that is spoken by majority of people in that province as the language of official business, as provided for by the provincial law. (3) Other matters concerning language shall be as decided by the Government of Nepal on the recommendation of the Language Commission. 8. National flag: (1) The national flag of Nepal, consists of two juxtaposed triangular figures with a crimson colored base and deep blue borders, there being a white emblem of the crescent moon with eight rays visible out of sixteen in the upper part and a white emblem of a twelve rayed sun in the lower part. (2) The method of drawing the flag and other particulars relating thereto shall be as set out in Schedule-1. 9. National anthem, etc.: (1) The national anthem of Nepal shall be as set out in Schedule-2. (2) The coat-of-arms of Nepal shall be shall be as set out in Schedule-3. (3) The Rhododendron Arboreum is the national flower, Crimson is the national color, the cow is the national animal and the Lophophorus is the national bird of Nepal.