10 Fascinating Facts About the USS Constitution
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10 Fascinating Facts About the USS Constitution

September 16, 2019

In 1797 an act of Congress created the United
States Navy and authorized the construction of six frigates to fill the role of its capital
ships. Three of the frigates were designed to be
the heaviest and most powerfully armed ships of their type ever built. They were President, United States, and Constitution. A fourth, Chesapeake, was planned, but later
reduced in size during construction. Named by President Washington they included
innovative designs in their framing, were built of materials including southern live
oak, and carried (by design) 44 guns, though in practice they each carried many more. The ships were the centerpiece of a fleet
built to protect American trade from the depredations of the Barbary Pirates, signaling national
determination to end the shame of paying tribute to Islamic terrorists of the seas. The young American Navy performed well against
French privateers and warships during the Quasi-War with revolutionary France; ended
the piracy in the Mediterranean against American trade; challenged the British Royal Navy over
the latter’s practice of conscripting sailors on the high seas. During the War of 1812 American victories
against British ships, formerly believed to be invincible, were a source of national pride
and boosted American morale. Chief among the heroes of the War of 1812
were the officers of the American navy, and USS Constitution gained immortality for its
exploits at sea, both in battle and in eluding superior British squadrons. Constitution, enshrined in Boston Harbor,
remains a symbol of pride for the United States, and the Navy which it served so valiantly. Here are 10 reasons why. 10. The ship was a triumph of American shipbuilding
and design The design of Constitution and its sister
ships was innovative and controversial in its day. The United States Navy was using the frigate
design for its heaviest ships, rather than the larger and more powerfully armed ship
of the line. Designer Joshua Humphreys envisioned frigates
carrying heavier guns than the typical design of the day, and more of them. It was his intent that the American frigates
could outgun ships of their class, and outrun those more powerful. He designed a hull supported by diagonal beams
running fore and aft, which supported heavier planking on the outer hull, heavier decks
above, and a longer hull which delivered more speed through the water but did not sag or
hog (flex inordinately) as a result of the pressures upon the keel. The design was controversial among conservative
shipbuilders, and the construction was plagued with cost overruns, the beginning of another
US Navy tradition which has endured over time. Working with live oak proved difficult. Boston shipbuilder Edmund Hartt consumed about
60 acres of trees building the ship and its lower masts, under the supervision of US Navy
Captain Samuel Nicholson. The hull was sheathed with copper, forged
by Boston’s Paul Revere. Most of the wood used in completing the ship
came from South Carolina and Georgia’s swamps. When the ship was ready for launch in 1797,
it proved too heavy to slide down the ways. Three separate attempts were required before
the ship successfully entered the waters of Boston Harbor on October 21, 1797. 9. Constitution encountered difficulties in completing
the ship and its early cruises Sailing ships were launched with only their
lower masts installed, and top hamper – topmasts, topgallant masts, yards, and all the necessary
rigging – needed completion before the ship was seaworthy. It also needed to be armed. The forty-four guns which the ship was designed
to carry, thirty 24 pound cannons on its gun deck and fourteen 32 pound carronades on the
spar deck above, were not available during its initial cruise. In May 1798, Constitution and the other ships
of the Navy were ordered to sea to protect American ships from the privateers and naval
vessels of Revolutionary France, which was at war with Great Britain. Constitution was forced to borrow cannon from
the Army, taking 16 guns from the fort on Castle Island in Boston Harbor. The borrowed guns were 18 pounders, rendering
the weight of metal Constitution could unleash upon an enemy vessel considerably less than
as designed. Nonetheless, the ship put to sea under Captain
Nicholson in July, patrolling the Eastern Seaboard of the United States. In August the ship took the first prize of
its career, a ship sailing with a French crew, though allegedly under British orders. The United States government later apologized
and paid Great Britain restitution. The following year Nicholson encountered another
British vessel which had been captured by the French. Under the rules of war it was a legitimate
prize for Constitution, but Nicholson released the vessel, possibly confused by the politics
of the earlier incident. For the rest of the Quasi-War, Constitution
performed routine patrols in company of other ships of the growing US Navy. 8. The First Barbary War was a response the seizure
of hostages for ransom In October of 1802 Constitution was placed
in ordinary – laid up – in Boston, with the vessel’s upper masts removed, tenting
covering the decks, and no crew aboard. During the preceding year the Bashaw of Tripoli,
to whom the United States paid tribute to prevent his ships from preying on American
vessels, learned that he was receiving less money than the United States was paying the
Bey of Algiers for similar reasons. Extremely put off at the perceived insult,
he demanded an increase, and to reinforce his demand Tripolitan ships began seizing
American, and holding their crews and passengers hostage. In response, President Jefferson ordered a
naval squadron to the Mediterranean to protect American shipping and force a treaty on the
Bashaw, under which no further tribute would be paid. Constitution was ordered to join the squadron
in 1803, but after its period of inactivity it required extensive maintenance before the
ship was seaworthy. Its copper sheathing was replaced, with sheets
from Revere’s new rolling mill in North Boston. Under the command of Captain (later Commodore)
Edward Preble, Constitution entered the Mediterranean in September 1803, after a voyage in which
it encountered a British vessel in the dark and narrowly avoided exchanging shots in a
confused incident of misidentification. Preble first arranged a treaty with the Sultan
of Morocco at Tangiers, his demands backed by Constitution’s guns, before sailing with
the American squadron to Tripoli, where he found the Tripolitans more intransigent than
the Moroccans. 7. Preble established America’s first naval
support facilities in the Mediterranean With Constitution serving as the flagship
of the American Navy for much of the Barbary War, support bases were needed for refitting
and resupplying the American fleet. Preble established such facilities at Syracuse,
Malta, and other ports. Constitution remained in the Mediterranean,
under different commanders, until 1807. During the relative period of peace following
the treaty with Tripoli in 1805, Constitution remained in the region with a greatly reduced
American squadron ensuring the terms were enforced. Meanwhile the Napoleonic wars intensified,
and the British need for sailors to crew their ships led them to stop ships of all neutral
countries, including the United States, to search for British born seamen and press them
into service. In 1807 USS Chesapeake sailed from Norfolk
to relieve Constitution, encountered HMS Leopard at sea, and was fired into by the British
ship when it refused to stop and be searched. When Constitution learned of the incident
at Malaga, its commander, Captain Hugh Campbell, began preparations for war with Great Britain. Its crew, weary of the long deployment, mutinied
by refusing to work the ship bound for any destination other than the United States. Campbell suppressed the mutiny by ordering
the ship’s officers and Marines to fire the carronades at the assembled crew. The mutinous seamen complied grudgingly with
their orders, and the closest thing to a full mutiny ever to occur on a US Naval ship ended
without violence. In September Constitution was ordered home,
and the ship arrived in Boston in October after a commission of over four years. 6. Constitution’s great escape in the summer
of 1812 Constitution remained in commission for most
of the remaining years before the outbreak of the War of 1812. In 1810 Captain Isaac Hull assumed command,
carrying the newly appointed American Ambassador to France, Joel Barlow, to that country. While closely watched by British ships engaged
in the blockade of the European coast, Hull prepared his ship for war with sailing and
gunnery drills. By early 1812 the ship was in Annapolis, where
it remained until war was declared by the United States in June. Hull put to sea in July, ordered to rendezvous
with an American squadron under the command of Commodore John Rodgers. Instead, the ship encountered a squadron of
British ships, a ship of the line and four frigates. Shortly after the sighting the ships were
becalmed. The British ships bore down on Constitution
using their boats to tow them, and the Americans attempted to escape in the same manner. The British held the advantage of being able
to replace oarsmen of their lead frigates with crew of the larger ships, which remained
behind to await the wind. Hull used his boats to haul the ship’s anchors
forward, drop them, and then the crew aboard Constitution used the capstan to pull the
ship ahead. He also opened fire on the British boats,
and pumped most of his ship’s drinking water over the side. On July 19, after a back breaking pursuit
of nearly sixty hours, Constitution caught the wind, and the lightened ship out-sailed
the British pursuit, arriving at the safety of Boston on July 27. One of the British ships which vainly participated
in the chase was HMS Guerriere. 5. Constitution earns the nickname “Old Ironsides” Hull did not remain in Boston for long, replenishing
his water and other supplies and putting to sea on August 2, bound for the British convoy
routes off Halifax, and then towards Bermuda. On August 19 a single British frigate, Guerriere,
was sighted and Constitution maneuvered to engage the enemy. Guerriere fired several broadsides as Constitution
closed, with most missing entirely, and the shots which struck bounced off the stout oak
sides of the American ship. According to tradition, an American crewman
cried out the sides were made of iron, and the nickname Old Ironsides was born. The tale is likely apocryphal and the name
was probably introduced by florid press accounts of the battle later that summer. Constitution rapidly reduced the British ship
to a floating wreck, dismasted, holed below the waterline, and unable to maneuver. For a time the ships were entwined, with the
British bowsprit tangled in Constitution’s rigging, but the heavy seas prevented either
side from boarding the other. The British surrendered, an almost unheard
of action in 19th century naval affairs. Hull badly wanted to take his prize into Boston,
but it was too heavily damaged from the shot of his guns, and the British ship was burned. Constitution’s hull may have been impenetrable,
but its masts were not, and Hull was forced to bring his ship back to Boston for repairs,
with the lower masks weakened from British shot. The news of the improbable victory against
the British navy spread across the nation in a frenzy; Isaac Hull was an immediate national
hero, and Constitution became the focus of intense national pride and patriotic furor. 4. “Her thunders shook the mighty deep…” The British largely sniffed at the loss of
Guerriere and the American victory, claiming that the ship was in a poor state of readiness
and barely seaworthy when the encounter occurred. In September 1812 William Bainbridge took
command of Constitution and sailed on October 27, unaware that two days earlier USS United
States, under Stephen Decatur, had defeated another British frigate, HMS Macedonian, and
taken it as a prize into the United States Navy. On December 29, after cruising for several
weeks off the coast of Brazil, Constitution encountered the British frigate HMS Java. Constitution had its helm shot away and suffered
severe damage to its rigging during the early part of the action, but managed to shoot away
Java’s mizzenmast, and withdraw for emergency repairs. Once the rigging was repaired, Constitution
again closed with its opponent, which had been severely damaged during the earlier fighting. Seeing the big American frigate returning
to finish the action the British Captain, Henry Lambert, surrendered. Bainbridge had been wounded twice in the battle. His officers surveyed the British ship and
reported to him that Java was too badly damaged to be taken into port. Bainbridge ordered the British ship burned,
deposited its crew as prisoners under parole at Sao Salvador, and returned in Constitution
to Boston, arriving on February 15, 1813. The third American victory over British frigates
in ship to ship actions created near delirium in the United States, and orders in the British
navy to avoid single ship actions with the big American frigates. 3. Another close escape and blockade in Boston Constitution required extensive refitting
after the engagement with Java, but supplies in Boston were scarce due to the shipping
being built on the Great Lakes in 1813. In July command of the frigate was assigned
to Charles Stewart, who was not able to complete his ship’s repair and man its crew until
December. He sailed on New Year’s Eve and in three
months captured five British merchant and supply ships, as well as the schooner HMS
Pictou, the third enemy warship to fall to Constitution during the war. A damaged mainmast forced Stewart to return
to port, pursued by British frigates. With a damaged vessel and outgunned, Stewart
was unable to engage the enemy. His escape required him to pump his drinking
water over the side, followed by food stores, and then, to the considerable chagrin of the
crew, the ship’s supply of rum and brandy. As Constitution arrived at Marblehead the
citizens of the town rallied to defend it, moving available cannons to Fort Sewall. Faced with the daunting prospect of facing
the broadside of Constitution backed with shore based guns, the British ships withdrew. Stewart took advantage of their departure
to slip into Boston in late April. The evidently charmed Constitution eluded
the British blockade to enter Boston Harbor where the ship underwent repairs and awaited
an opportunity to get out to sea yet again. It did not arrive until December. 2. Constitution defeated two additional British
ships after the war was ended Constitution went to sea in late December
1814, and captured additional prizes from the British merchant fleet, including Lord
Nelson, which Stewart used to fully supply his own ship, having left Boston at the first
opportunity offered by the weather, without completing his stores. In February 1815 Stewart learned of the signing
of the treaty ending the war, but without news of its ratification rightly considered
it was not officially over. On February 20 Stewart encountered two British
warships, HMS Cyane and Levant, and set off in pursuit. Cyane mounted 34 guns, most of them short
range carronades, and Levant carried twenty guns, while Constitution mounted 54 guns. The British, with two ships, had an advantage
in maneuverability. Nonetheless, Constitution outmaneuvered its
adversaries, capturing first Cyane, then Levant in sharply contested actions and taking both
prizes into port. When a more powerful British squadron appeared,
Stewart took the three ships back to sea, though Levant was recaptured. Cyane, an American prize, reached New York
safely, followed by Constitution in May, 1815, having made its third successful escape from
a British force too powerful for it to fight alone. Constitution defeated five British ships during
the War of 1812, captured or burned numerous merchant vessels, and tied up large elements
of the British Navy blockading the ports in which it sheltered. When it arrived at New York on May 15, 1815,
it was already the immortal symbol of the fighting spirit of the United States Navy. 1. Constitution escaped the ship breakers numerous
times since the War of 1812 In 1830 a Boston newspaper reported that Constitution
was slated to be broken up, though that decision had yet to be made. Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. published, two days
later, a poem entitled Old Ironsides, and the national indignation the poem instigated
created pressure on the Navy Department to rebuild the ship. It served on slavery patrol in the Atlantic,
as flagship of the Mediterranean squadron, and in the same role in the Pacific. During its Pacific duty it stopped at what
later became Da Nang. It served as a barracks and training ship
at Annapolis at the time of the Civil War, when it was moved to Newport, Rhode Island
for the duration of the war (as was the Naval Academy). It was rebuilt several times, both in active
service and as a museum ship, most recently in a project started in 2015, completed two
years later. In 1993 it was revealed the ship had over
14 inches of hogging in its hull. A review of the ship’s structure then in
place revealed that the components insisted upon by its designer, Joshua Humphreys, to
reduce hogging were no longer installed. They were restored as Constitution rested
in drydock, which allowed the hull to settle in response to gravity, and hogging was reduced
when the ship was returned to the water. Throughout its years of combat, patrol, showing
the flag, training young officers, serving as a barracks, and as a working museum, Humphreys’
design of the late eighteenth century proved to be excellent.

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  1. Sorry, Simon–you have scrambled another name. Stephen Decatur's last name is pronounced dee-kay-tur, the last syllable is pronounced as the tur in "turn". And the emphasis is on the 2nd syllable. Just some constructive criticism, I'm not giving you a hard time.

  2. You should do a video on the "mutiny" aboard the USS Somers, where three men were hanged on 1 December 1842, one of them being the son of the Secretary of War.

  3. Bonus fact: The Constitution sets sail around Boston Harbor every Fourth of July as part of Independence Day celebrations and launches a 21 cannon salute as it passes Castle Island, home if Fort Independence.
    Then it returns to dock facing the opposite year's direction to help even out the wear on the hull.

  4. I can add an 11 USS Constitution is the oldest commissioned warship afloat HMS Victory lost that when she was permanently drydocked in 1938

  5. Islamic terrorists of the seas🤔
    There's me thinking that Islamic terrorism is only a recent thing.

  6. Thank you Simon. My mom and aunts will love this. Joshua was some sorta great, great, great uncle or something like that. They love it whenever he gets his due. Great video as always sir.

  7. She is also the longest serving ship in the Navy and is still on active duty. During WWII, was the flagship of the Atlantic fleet.

  8. Another Bonus Fact: The second-longest US Naval ship in commission is the USS Pueblo, commissioned in October 1945 and captured by North Korea. She will remain on the Navy list until she is returned.

  9. Please read your script before people more literate than yourself. They would tell you that it is Stephen DEE KAY TER.

  10. I particularly enjoyed the 1 minute bio of old ironsides before getting into the top 10 list. I don't know if you've been doing that recently.

    Fun fact. There was a replica of the Santa Maria docked near my hometown in the early 2000's (it was in port in Sanford Florida in Lake Monroe) and was a touring museum. If you guys get the chance to do something like that I highly recommend it. 😁

  11. The early US navy was ton for ton on par with the great British Empire. Yes, I know the British could have destroyed us like a bug if they sent their entire navy against ours, but when Nelson was crushing navies of superior numbers and land support, the US could match the British in single ship engagements where numbers and firepower were similar.

  12. You don't surrender a naval vessel you strike the colors. Yes, it amounts to the same thing but surrender is of people, striking the colors retires the ship from the fight under the authority of the victorious side of the battle. The vessel can then be taken as a prize or scuttled by the victors. Not that we take ships as prize anymore.

  13. It's a great ship with many great stories to tell. Once a year it's towed from its berth and turned around in Boston Harbor so it will weather evenly. I was aboard once and was thrilled to death, being allowed to touch an original hawser. A lovely model of the Constitution graces my mantel.

  14. The USS Constitution was also the first military unit to see combat in Vietnam. During its pacific deployment, the crew conducted a raid to gain the release of a French missionary.

  15. Wait, isn’t this boat supposed to be lodged into the side of a building or something? Or has that not happened yet

  16. Such a shame. They go to all that trouble to build a ship like that, then only a short while later, the Ironclad ships start rolling off the production lines instead…

  17. The USS Constitution is the oldest commissioned warship in the world that is still afloat. How the hell did you miss this?

  18. You forgot to mention her around the world voyage from 1844 to 1846 under the command of Captain John "Mad Jack" Percival.

  19. Great Video, Mr. Whistler!
    Hope you can do a TopTenz on the USS Enterprise (CV-6) the most famous US aircraft carrier during World War II, or its successor namesake, the USS Enterprise (CVN- 65), the US Navy's first nuclear aircraft carrier.

  20. We look far too much into american history over any other… a history of slavery, lies racism and murder. 🤨

  21. Commodore is not a US rank through most of US History, but a job title.1862 to 1899, and 1983-1985. The Commodores noted before the US Civil War held the rank of Captain (mostly Captain of the First Grade {seniormost of 3 grades}), and the position of Commodore of the Squadron. Yes, they wore a star, but ONLY while in squadron. Yes, they were addressed as Commodore while wearing the star. When they retired, they were not supposed to retain the title, but commonly were addressed by it as a courtesy. Several current Commodores in the USN are only Commander by rank, with a line of small ships commanded by junior Commanders.

  22. I have absolutely no idea what "hogging" is.
    "A beam with an upward curve".
    Still confused about it being done, how and why.

  23. Simon, I hope you're doing your research – I've never known you to miss a REAL DETAIL like Ironsides being The oldest commissioned ship still floating. Sad to miss that. She's a very beautiful ship, even if it's not fully rigged. 💓👍🏻 THANKS MUCHLY Sir Simon.

  24. One of the USS Constitution's 1906 restoration cannons somehow ended up in a park in a town in Missouri near me. I had driven by it for years before finally stopping one day and reading the plaque to find out to my surprise where it came from.

  25. if your in boston go on the tour it is cool…..they turn her around every few years so technically she stays commissioned..

  26. That southern live oak used in the middle layer of the hull (live oak sandwiched between 2 layers of white oak) was considered a key strategic material in the era of American wooden ships, and the US Navy continually stockpiled it.

  27. We were in Boston when the ship was in dry dock for refurbish. They had the copper sheathing out for people to sign before it went back on the ship. So my signature is on it.

  28. Simon, you and your team are so awesome, I truly love you and and your videos. I actually sometimes prefer watching your videos over TV. Thank you. Oh, also I love your other channels too. However, my favorites are TopTenz and your Biographies, even though your biography of Nikolai II Romanov was full of inaccuracies. Still, I love watching your videos. Thank you most kindly. 🤗☺️♥️

  29. In 1994, my husband and I got to visit this great ship. For some reason, visitation was low, so we were treated to an almost private tour — it was exciting and memorable! One thing I remember, but am fuzzy on details, was during a battle, she lost her ship’s wheel, but the wheel from the enemy ship was scavenged and installed on her deck. Supposedly, this is the current wheel, though a lot of/most of her “original” structures have been replaced over time. I have never heard this story repeated, and have often wondered if it was true…..or just a tale for sailors to tell visitors.

  30. “Cost overruns”

    This is the product of ingenuity and progress. If you want to stay on budget build what the other guy has. If you want to dominate then deal with cost overruns.

  31. Interesting ship design. Didn't seem like a stand and fight vessel, as much as a bully who did hit and run against solo ships. I don't imagine at the time the American Navy could stand toe to toe with the British Navy, so such a design proved surprisingly useful. Not bad for a ship that seemed like just an experiment.

  32. She is a beautiful ship, although not really a frigate but more a 5th or 4th rate. its also worth noting the cannons later recast by the UK have the royal stamp on them, something that gets the odd chuckle from the UK visiting and a source of much mirth to those serving on her now.

  33. I consider this one of the best videos ever done by Simon and this channel. Given the usual outstanding quality, I believe that says something….

  34. Despite living in Massachusetts my whole life I still haven’t seen the Constitution in person. I’m kinda ashamed to admit that.

  35. I'm a US Navy sailor, 1984 to 1990. For quite some time, before and during my service, I dreamed about doing a tour on Constitution. She will always have a special place in the hearts of all US sailors and marines.

  36. This is such a great video. My Dad retired on the Constitution as he could have chosen any military location to retire from his military service. Thank you for this !

  37. I have traveled to Boston on a few occasions to see both the New England Aquarium and the Constitution. Per the Seaman First Class that gave us our tour: ""The U.S.S. Constitution is, now, in service and fully commissioned. She doesn't have to be called to service as she has been in service since her original commission." It gives me chills and a sense of great pride every time I board Her. To think of the brave men, standing aboard Her and fighting for their country and countrymen. Shockingly, my 30 y/o son knows nothing about the U.S.S. Constitution. He was never taught about Her!!

  38. It's a shame he didn't mention that it's the oldest commissioned naval vessel still afloat. How many countries can claim that they have a 225 year old warship still on the books?

  39. I would conclude that the US navy during the the war of 1812, was the most successful service of the young nation of the USA. And that USS Constitution was by far its most successful and valuable unit.

  40. There was no confusion when the USS Constitution encountered the British vessel: the Brits were caught by surprise and were playing for time. They actually tried to mislead the Americans saying they were a larger Ship of Line (when in fact they were a Frigate). Preble ordered his to fire with the famous "Boys strike your matches." This forced the Brits to capitulate by sending over a small boat. I'm not surprised that Simon glossed over this embarrassing bit of British history

  41. The US Navy was officially established on 13 October 1775, not in 1777.  One of the first Navy ships was the USS Hannah, George Washington purchased this ship out of his own pocket.  The USS Constitution being the oldest crewed, by Navy personnel, ship in the U.S Navy.  As others have stated she is the oldest warship afloat today.  Below are some of her vital statistics.   – – – – –  General Characteristics
      – – – – –  Primary Function: USS Constitution is located on Boston's Freedom Trail of historic sites and is interpreted to the War of 1812 era, when the ship received its nickname "Old Ironsides" because of its thick oak hull. It is the oldest commissioned warship afloat in the world and America's Ship of State, and serves as the educational platform to teach U.S. Navy heritage.    – – – – –  Builder: Col. George Claghorne, Edmund Hartt's Shipyard, Boston, MassachusettsDate Deployed: Launch Date: October 21, 1797; First Sail Date: July 22, 1798Unit     – – – – –  Cost: $302,718 (in the year 1797) or $6.03204877e+6 (2019 USD)    – – – – –  Propulsion: 1812 Propulsion: 48 sails, over 44,000 square feet of sail, equal to over 1 acre of canvas    – – – – –  Length: Overall 305 feet (93 meters); 207 feet (63.1 meters), billet head to taffrail; 175 feet at waterline (53.3 meters)    – – – – –  Height: Main mast, from the spar (upper) deck to the top of the mast, is 172 feet (54.4 meters)   – – – – –  Beam: 43.5 feet (13.3 meters)   – – – – –  Displacement: 1,900+ tons    – – – – –  Draft: 1812 Draft: 24 feet aft, when fully loaded (7.3 meters); Draft Today: 22.5 feet aft (6.9 meters)   – – – – –  Speed: 1812 Speed: 13+ knots (approximately 15 miles per hour, 24 km. per hour) Crew: 1812 Crew:  Over 450 Sailors and Marines; Crew Today:  3 officers, 85+ enlisted U.S. Navy men and womenArmament: 1812    – – – – –  Armament: Spar Deck: 24, 32-pound carronades, 4-8 crew, range of fire approx. 400 yards; one, 18-pound bow chaser; Gun Deck: 30, 24-pound long guns, 7-14 crew, range of fire approximately 1,200 yards  – – – – –  Landing/Attack Craft: 1812 Boats: Used for transporting officers and crew between ship and shore for communication purposes, landing parties, transporting goods and services for the ship, and shore leave. 
    – – – – -36ft Launch (1)
    – – – – -28ft whaleboat (2)
    – – – –  -27ft and 28ft cutters (4)
    – – – –  -Gig (1)From the Constitution Museum site   – – – //es// A Navy Veteran, 1965-1978.

  42. Thumbs down for talking so fast the listener doesn't have time to digest the info. Get a job doing radio commercials if you can't slow down and narrate history properly. At least take a breath between sentences. Also, writers, use some commas in the sentences you pass on to Simon.

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