25th November 1491: The Treaty of Granada ends Islamic rule on the Iberian Peninsula
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25th November 1491: The Treaty of Granada ends Islamic rule on the Iberian Peninsula

November 25, 2019


Hello, and welcome to HistoryPod. On 25 November 1491 the Treaty of Granada
ended the Granada War and brought about the end of Islamic rule on the Iberian Peninsula. The Emirate of Granada was established in
1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar. Ruled by the Nasrid dynasty, the emirate survived
as a tributary state under Castile for more than two centuries before becoming the target
of a series of military campaigns by the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand
II of Aragon. The seasonal campaigns that constituted the
Granada War began in 1482 and led to economic problems in Granada that were compounded by
lasting internal divisions over the Nasrid succession. Meanwhile, despite the Christian forces generally
being commanded by individual nobles, the army was relatively unified. Their aggressive use of artillery pieces such
as bombards and cannons also helped them to shorten sieges and make rapid gains into Islamic held territory. Early in the campaign Ferdinand had formed
a loose alliance with Emir Abu Hasan’s son, known to the Spanish as Boabdil, after capturing
him. Boabdil focused his energies on capturing
the city of Granada, which he did in 1487, but in 1490 he turned against the Catholic
Monarchs due to him allegedly being unhappy with how he was rewarded for his alliance. The Christian forces then turned their attention to Granada. They began their siege in April 1491, and by November Boabdil was ready to negotiate. The Treaty of Granada was signed on 25 November
and provided a two-month truce prior to the full surrender of the city. The terms were very generous towards the Muslims
since they guaranteed their property, laws, customs, and religion. Nevertheless, the Treaty of Granada and the
final capitulation of the city on 2 January 1492 marked the end of Islamic rule on the
Iberian Peninsula.

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