CD / Frame Rate
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CD / Frame Rate

October 15, 2019

This is a still picture! This is a slightly different still picture. If we switch between them quickly, it kind of looks like I’m moving! If we add more pictures, it starts to look like realistic motion. That’s how animation works! But it’s also how anything moves on screen. The pictures don’t have to change that fast for us to perceive the illusion of motion. But somewhere around 20 a second makes it feel less annoying when watching for long periods. And the pace doesn’t have to be perfectly even – but if we want the recorded movement to play back in its natural, real world speed, and stay in sync with other things, like sound, it helps to keep the frame rate constant throughout the process. A long time ago, the entire world settled on 24 frames per second as the standard for motion pictures. It wasn’t too hard to control the speed of film cameras and projectors by governing their motors with crystals. But the invention of television transformed moving images into electrical signals. So electricity itself had to keep the frame rate steady. This was done by distributing the frame information evenly into the cycles of alternating current. In parts of the world where AC power modulates at 50Hz, the frame rate was adjusted to 25 frames per second, places where it modulates at 60 Hertz had to raise the frame rate up to 30. Which looks like this! And for one place, the introduction of color to video caused slight Interference with the audio signal, which showed up as occasional dots for those few still watching on black-and-white TVs. So of course the government slowed down the broadcast frame rate by 0.1 percent, and keeps it that way to this day. Which is weird, because the reasons for this awkwardness are long gone. Wires and radio waves no longer carry raw analog signals, but packets of digital information. Everything about the picture, including the frame rate at which it should be played is bundled along, and decoded by the device showing the video. It’s a frame rate revolution! Want to film at 12 frames per second, but play back at 18? You can! Want to film at 90 and play at 24? Go for it. But it’s also a frame rate catastrophe. As automatic video encoders convert files from one frame rate to another without the users even thinking about it, the internet drowns in footage with stuttering motion, messy interpolated frames, and interlacing artifacts. Hey, what if we shoot at double the standard film frame rate, and then play back at that same rate too? The motion would have twice the temporal resolution, and feel twice as smooth! Some people are into high frame rates and see it as a logical upgrade to the classic 24 frames per second of movies, which can seem a bit choppy by comparison. Some even advocate a rate of 60 frames per second, which is as fast as most monitors can refresh. They see it as the future, not realizing that most of us have been looking at 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second on TV screens for about 70 years. A few people claim they’re sensitive enough to spot the difference between 48 frames per second and 60, but I’m not sure that’s true. I mean, I’ve been switching between the two rates randomly in the last few shots of this video and I doubt they noticed that. Today, frame rates are an aesthetic choice. And aesthetics differ between mediums and genres. Most filmmakers continue to use 24 frames per second for movies and drama TV, while news and reality shows broadcast at 25, or 30. Sports, video games, and VR applications choose 60 or higher for a lifelike experience, and on the Web, creators experiment with all sorts of presentation styles over time. You don’t have to pick and defend one frame rate. Just be aware of them. Especially when you convert video files. Seriously, they look so lame exported in the wrong way. If I searched for a clip from The Adventures of Pete and Pete, I expect it to be at 23.976 FPS, with the 3:2 pulldown removed on a shot-by-shot basis, and cross cut half frame fields compensated for. And I’ll tell you something else—

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  1. Had a friend who had incredibly fast reflexes and when we would get together for Lan gaming back in the 90s he would constantly mess with his system if it got below 60 frames per second.

    He said it looked "stuttery" to him while it looks smooth as glass to everyone else. And it could be measured with a frame rate utility so we could see a number saying it was 57 or 56 frames per second.

    If you look at testing of professional athletes versus the average human being their reflexes are just quicker. Their nervous systems run faster. They react to events faster in a measurable way.

  2. Love with your heart, use your head for everything else!

  3. i actually really hate seeing video at really high fps. where it looks so smooth and fresh. every movement is like an acid trip and i just really cant enjoy it at all. im sure the younger people may but being use to lower fps id rather stay here.

  4. The literal only time you decreased the framerate from 60 to 48 was for 1 second in 2:56. People will just assume it was a mistake on your end. Don't try to be a smartass and claim people can't tell the difference.

  5. I can tell 48 vs 60, but only in interactive medium. Due to input lag (perceived lag between input and reaction in video games, primarily due to frame rate in the GPU (not always the same as refresh rate of the monitor)) people often can "feel" the difference between frame rates, even if they can't really tell visually. (See the extra credits frame rate video for more information, they are a great channel) Personally, I also think most motion heavy content benefits from higher fidelity of motion due to HFR (think sports and action movies, lower motion content tends to use their signaling/storage better with higher resolution), but sometimes higher frame-rates change very little but use up far more signalling power, processing power, and storage space. It is all a balence

  6. I love you.

    People is too fixated on wanting high resolution and high frame rates without even understanding they can't even discern the difference.

    I even had some clowns claiming they see at 250 fps (when they probably see at 15-20 at most lmao).

    Glad to see someone understanding.

    About being weird to the eye, I have an issue with 60fps videos on yt…they hurt my eyes after two minutes…so I just switch to 480p 24/30fps

  7. u don't need 60fps, make it look more realistic by using motion blur at 24 or 30fps.. gpu's should concentrste more on this

  8. Sometimes when short-film creators use too high a frame rate, it jumps out at you as not having that “film” or cinematic look to it. I can’t tell what the frame rate is, but I think most people familiar with “cinematic look” aesthetics can tell when the frame rate is too high. When things are captured in very high frame rate, there is no motion blur, and it gives it a hyper-realistic look, kind of like what you’d capture for slow motion. It gives it a frenetic look that doesn’t feel cinematic.

  9. Well, I do notice the flip-flop between 48 and 60 FPS even before Captain D told about it, at least on full screen.

  10. that's odd. after watching a higher frame rate the lower one felt a bit sluggish even though I'm used to seeing it a lot

  11. Everywhere today should be using 30 fps as the standard, 24 is too choppy today in a lot of movies and considering all TV's are 60 Hz at the least, it makes a lot fo sense

  12. Actually as a quick add on to your point about frame rate being an added point, one of the examples you showed was “spider man into the spider-verse” which used frame rate in a really interesting way. Early on in the movie the main character (Miles) is animated at half of the frame rate of the world around him. The idea was to make him seem a bit clumsy by keeping him frozen every other frame, but then as he becomes more confident in himself later on in the movie he becomes animated in the same frame rate as everything else. It’s a really great example of using different frame rates for artistic purposes.

  13. The reason most people wont notice the difference in frame rates is because their focus isn't on the video quality but rather the content therein

  14. I knew you were on 48 when you were saying it's 60. Do this experiment: put a black frame and then a white frame one after the other in a loop. The video will become non-flickery and gray at around 120Hz!!! Yes, that's right, we need even more than 100Hz…

  15. When it comes to video games, FPS is not an aesthetic choice. Higher framerates make for objectively better gameplay than lower.

  16. Worth mentioning that generally video games have higher frame rates because they make the controls more responsive, not because it’s a “lifelike experience”. If we could play at 1000 FPS most of us would.

  17. Damn…I just tried using my heart to switch to the next video and nothing happened! Why didn't he remind me to use my mind!!!

  18. I'm a gamer but I don't get the 60fps thing. I cant really see the difference and only in the most twitch circumstances can I get a "feel" for it. That said, when the framerate dips…that annoys the hell out of me. I want a steady rate

  19. I notice between 144 and 120 Hz. Kills me when I watch a movie and a person is walking by a still camera. Untill they stop NOBODy can tell who is it because of all the smudge.
    Or try to read a sign or something… It's retarded. Movies should be shot at at least 60 Hz.

  20. The reason why games require such a high frame rate is because of a thing called "Input Lag" (P.S. Games can also be able to run at 120 FPS or higher)

    Edit: I know someone already mentioned that.

  21. (3:00) This video felt randomly stuttery at 60 FPS, and I couldn't tell why. It wasn't something I could see directly, but just something I felt. Like the video playback wasn't running perfectly, maybe repeating a frame here or there. Then CD confirms this by saying it was playing in 48. – I might not be able to tell if a video is 30 or 60, but if you switch between 30 and 60, the difference during the switch is noticeable.

  22. I actually did notice the frame rate flux. But, like, 60 FPS is a GAME thing, not a movie thing. Honestly even 120 FPS (assuming you have a monitor that can display that) has a place in games, especially in fast placed skill games where you need to rapidly change the camera's view and still get smooth motion of objects that come into and leave the field of view. Since movie's camera moves are all choreographed, and often static for long periods of time, there's no need for more frames in them.

  23. Buh… Buh… Debu… Nk…!!!!! #goodbyequickd (your new videos are still great, keep it up but something at the back of my mind tells me that I'm still gonna miss the old videos)

  24. In some formats seeing small differences in framerate is difficult. While watching, I didn't notice any switching between 48 and 60. However, when playing games, I can tell easily if a game is running at a lower framerate. The difference between 45 and 60 FPS while playing a game is almost jarring, but I wouldn't ever complain if I was watching a video and the same happened.

  25. My monitor is pretty bad, so I have no idea if the framerate actually changed randomly on my screen
    I wouldn't notice anyways

  26. Didn’t Spider-Man into the Spiderverse purposefully make the scenes of Miles’ learning to swing lower frames to make his performance look sloppy and slow and speed up the frame rate as he perfected the skill? Not sure where I heard that from but I think it’d be cool if it was true.

  27. 3:21 "I doubt they notice that".. Time to use my no-fun-at-parties-super-powers..
    This is not a fair experiment. The image hardly changes, so you cannot see the difference between 30 and 60. However in controlled experiments, humans have been known to spot large changes at 240 fps!
    It seems to coincide with periods of high stress. 80-120 fps is spottable when you are relaxed.
    In games 60 fps (full frame) is quite usual, as the background tends to move, which causes way more changes per frame.
    Party spoiled..!

  28. You can spot the difference between 48 and 60 in Videogames, where your Movement and controls get affected ever so slightly, which you can notice.

  29. 48 FPS minimum. RIdiculous that movies are stuck using inferior framerates all because of idiots who can't accept better visual quality.

  30. Im rewatching your videos, and i just realised that at around 2:28, the signal bounces to the info, which then reveals a link to another video on interlacing. Pure genius.

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