Ch 2 – China’s 2018 Constitution (Amended) – The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens
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Ch 2 – China’s 2018 Constitution (Amended) – The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens

September 14, 2019


第二章 公民的基本权利和义务
Chapter Two Basic Rights and Obligations of Citizens 第三十三条
Article Thirty Three 凡具有中华人民共和国国籍的人都是中华人民共和国公民。 All persons holding the nationality of the
People’s Republic of China are citizens of the People’s Republic of China.
中华人民共和国公民在法律面前一律平等。 All citizens of the People’s Republic of
China are equal before the law. 国家尊重和保障人权。 The State respects and preserves human rights. 任何公民享有宪法和法律规定的权利,同时必须履行宪法和法律规定的义务。 Every citizen is entitled to the rights and
at the same time must perform the duties prescribed by the Constitution and other laws. 第三十四条
Article Thirty Four 中华人民共和国年满十八周岁的公民,不分民族、种族、性别、职业、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、财产状况、居住期限,都有选举权和被选举权;但是依照法律被剥夺政治权利的人除外。 All citizens of the People’s Republic of China
who have reached the age of Eighteen [years] have the right to vote and stand for election,
regardless of ethnic status, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, education,
property status or length of residence, except persons deprived of political rights according
to law. 第三十五条
Article Thirty Five 中华人民共和国公民有言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威的自由。 Citizens of the People’s Republic of China
enjoy freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession and
of demonstration. 第三十六条
Article Thirty Six 中华人民共和国公民有宗教信仰自由。 Citizens of the People’s Republic of China
enjoy freedom of religious belief. 任何国家机关、社会团体和个人不得强制公民信仰宗教或者不信仰宗教,不得歧视信仰宗教的公民和不信仰宗教的公民。 No State organ, public organization or individual
may compel citizens to believe in, or not to believe in, any religion; nor may they
discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, any religion.
国家保护正常的宗教活动。 The State protects normal religious activities.
任何人不得利用宗教进行破坏社会秩序、损害公民身体健康、妨碍国家教育制度的活动。 No one may make use of religion to engage
in activities that disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens or interfere with the
educational system of the State. 宗教团体和宗教事务不受外国势力的支配。 Religious bodies and religious affairs are
not subject to any foreign domination. 第三十七条
Article Thirty Seven 中华人民共和国公民的人身自由不受侵犯。 Freedom of the person of citizens of the People’s
Republic of China is inviolable. 任何公民,非经人民检察院批准或者决定或者人民法院决定,并由公安机关执行,不受逮捕。 No citizen may be arrested except with the
approval or by decision of a people’s procuratorate or by decision of a people’s court, and
arrests must be made by a public security organ.
禁止非法拘禁和以其他方法非法剥夺或者限制公民的人身自由,禁止非法搜查公民的身体。 Unlawful detention or deprivation or restriction
of citizens’ freedom of the person by other means is prohibited, and unlawful search of
the person of citizens is prohibited. 第三十八条
Article Thirty Eight 中华人民共和国公民的人格尊严不受侵犯。禁止用任何方法对公民进行侮辱、诽谤和诬告陷害。 The
personal dignity of citizens of the People’s Republic of China is inviolable. Insult, libel,
false accusation or false incrimination directed against citizens by any means is prohibited. 第三十九条
Article Thirty Nine 中华人民共和国公民的住宅不受侵犯。禁止非法搜查或者非法侵入公民的
住宅。 The residences of citizens of the People’s
Republic of China are inviolable. Unlawful search of, or intrusion into, a citizen’s
residence is prohibited. 第四十条
Artiucle Forty 中华人民共和国公民的通信自由和通信秘密受法律的保护。除因国家安全或者追查刑事犯罪的需要,由公安机关或者检察机关依照法律规定的程序对通信进行检查外,任何组织或者个人不得以任何理由侵犯公民的通信自由和通信
秘密。 Freedom and privacy of correspondence of citizens
of the People’s Republic of China are protected by law. No organization or individual may,
on any ground, infringe upon citizens’ freedom and privacy of correspondence, except in cases
where, to meet the needs of State security or of criminal investigation, public security
or procuratorial organs are permitted to censor correspondence in accordance with the procedures
prescribed by law. 第四十一条
Article Forty One 中华人民共和国公民对于任何国家机关和国家工作人员,有提出批评和建议的权利;对于任何国家机关和国家工作人员的违法失职行为,有向有关国家机关提出申诉、控告或者检举的权利,但是不得捏造或者歪曲事实进行诬告陷害。 Freedom and privacy of correspondence of citizens
of the People’s Republic of China are protected by law. No organization or individual may,
on any ground, infringe upon citizens’ freedom and privacy of correspondence, except in cases
where, to meet the needs of State security or of criminal investigation, public security
or procuratorial organs are permitted to censor correspondence in accordance with
the procedures prescribed by law. 对于公民的申诉、控告或者检举,有关国家机关必须查清事实,负责处理。任何人不得压制和打击报复。 Citizens have the right to make to relevant
State organs complaints or charges against, or exposures of, any State organ or functionary
for violation of law or dereliction of duty; but fabrication or distortion of facts for
purposes of libel or false incrimination is prohibited. The State organ concerned must, in a responsible
manner and by ascertaining the facts, deal with the complaints, charges or exposures
made by citizens. No one may suppress such complaints, charges and exposures or retaliate
against the citizens making them. 由于国家机关和国家工作人员侵犯公民权利而受到损失的人,有依照法律规定取得赔偿的权利。 Citizens who have suffered losses as a result
of infringement of their civic rights by any State organ or functionary have the right
to compensation in accordance with the provisions of law. 第四十二条
Article Forty Two 中华人民共和国公民有劳动的权利和义务。 Citizens of the People’s Republic of China
have the right as well as the duty to work. 国家通过各种途径,创造劳动就业条件,加强劳动保护,改善劳动条件,并在发展生产的基础上,提高劳动报酬和福利待遇。 Through various channels, the State creates
conditions for employment, enhances occupational safety and health, improves working conditions
and, on the basis of expanded production, increases remuneration for work
and welfare benefits. 劳动是一切有劳动能力的公民的光荣职责。国有企业和城乡集体经济组织的劳动者都应当以国家主人翁的态度对待自己的劳动。国家提倡社会主义劳动竞赛,奖励劳动模范和先进工作者。国家提倡公民从事义务劳动。 Work is a matter of honour for every citizen
who is able to work. All working people in State-owned enterprises and in urban and rural
economic collectives should approach their work as the masters of the country that they
are. The State promotes socialist labour emulation, and commends and rewards model and advanced
workers. The State encourages citizens to take part in voluntary labour. 国家对就业前的公民进行必要的劳动就业训练。 The State provides necessary vocational training
for citizens before they are employed. 第四十三条
Article Forty Three 中华人民共和国劳动者有休息的权利。 Working people in the People’s Republic
of China have the right to rest. 国家发展劳动者休息和休养的设施,规定职工的工作时间和休假制度。 The State expands facilities for the rest
and recuperation of the working people and prescribes working hours and vacations for
workers and staff. 第四十四条
Article Forty Four 国家依照法律规定实行企业事业组织的职工和国家机关工作人员的退休制度。退休人员的生活受到国家和社会的保障。 The
State applies the system of retirement for workers and staff members of enterprises and
institutions and for functionaries of organs of State according to law. The livelihood
of retired persons is ensured by the State and society. 第四十五条
Article Forty Five 中华人民共和国公民在年老、疾病或者丧失劳动能力的情况下,有从国家和社会获得物质帮助的权利。国家发展为公民享受这些权利所需要的社会保险、社会救济和医疗卫生事业。 Citizens of the People’s Republic of China
have the right to material assistance from the State and society when they are old, ill
or disabled. The State develops social insurance, social relief and medical and health services
that are required for citizens to enjoy this right.
国家和社会保障残废军人的生活,抚恤烈士家属,优待军人家属。 The
State and society ensure the livelihood of disabled members of the armed forces, provide
pensions to the families of martyrs and give preferential treatment to the families of
military personnel. 国家和社会帮助安排盲、聋、哑和其他有残疾的公民的劳动、生活和教育 The State and society help make arrangements
for the work, livelihood and education of the blind, deaf-mutes and other handicapped
citizens. 第四十六条
Article Forty Six 中华人民共和国公民有受教育的权利和义务。 Citizens of the People’s Republic of China
have the duty as well as the right to receive education. 国家培养青年、少年、儿童在品德、智力、体质等方面全面发展。 The State promotes the all-round development
of children and young people, morally, intellectually and physically. 第四十七条
Article Forty Seven 中华人民共和国公民有进行科学研究、文学艺术创作和其他文化活动的自由。国家对于从事教育、科学、技术、文学、艺术和其他文化事业的公民的有益于人民的创造性工作,给以鼓励和帮助。 Citizens of the People’s Republic of China
have the freedom to engage in scientific research, literary and artistic creation and other cultural
pursuits. The State encourages and assists creative endeavours conducive to the interests
of the people that are made by citizens engaged in education, science, technology, literature,
art and other cultural work. 第四十八条
Article Forty Eight 中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。 Women in the People’s Republic of China
enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, in political, economic, cultural,
social and family life. 国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部。 The State protects the rights and interests
of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work to men and women alike and
trains and selects cadres from among women. 第四十九条
Article Forty Nine 婚姻、家庭、母亲和儿童受国家的保护。 Marriage, the family and mother and child
are protected by the State. 夫妻双方有实行计划生育的义务。 Both husband and wife have the duty to practise
family planning. 父母有抚养教育未成年子女的义务,成年子女有赡养扶助父母的义务。 Parents have the duty to rear and educate
their children who are minors, and children who have come of age have the duty to support
and assist their parents. 禁止破坏婚姻自由,禁止虐待老人、妇女和儿童。 Violation of the freedom of marriage is prohibited. 第五十条
Article Fifty 中华人民共和国保护华侨的正当的权利和利益,保护归侨和侨眷的合法的权利和利益。 The People’s Republic of China protects
the legitimate rights and interests of Chinese nationals residing abroad and protects the
lawful rights and interests of returned overseas Chinese and of the family members of Chinese
nationals residing abroad. 第五十一条
Article Fifty One 中华人民共和国公民在行使自由和权利的时候,不得损害国家的、社会的、集体的利益和其他公民的合法的自由和权利。 Citizens of the People’s Republic of China,
in exercising their freedoms and rights, may not infringe upon the interests of the State,
of society or of the collective, or upon the lawful freedoms and rights of other citizens. 第五十二条
Article Fifty Two 中华人民共和国公民有维护国家统一和全国各民族团结的义务。 It is the duty of citizens of the People’s
Republic of China to safeguard the unification of the country and the unity of all its nationalities. 第五十三条
Article Fifty Three 中华人民共和国公民必须遵守宪法和法律,保守国家秘密,爱护公共财产,遵守劳动纪律,遵守公共秩序,尊重社会公德。 Citizens of the People’s Republic of China
must abide by the Constitution and other laws, keep State secrets, protect public property,
observe labour discipline and public order and respect social ethics. 第五十四条
Article Fifty Four 中华人民共和国公民有维护祖国的安全、荣誉和利益的义务,不得有危害祖国的安全、荣誉和利益的行为。 It is the duty of citizens of the People’s
Republic of China to safeguard the security, honour and interests of the motherland; they
must not commit acts detrimental to the security, honour and interests of the motherland. 第五十五条
Article Fifty Five 保卫祖国、抵抗侵略是中华人民共和国每一个公民的神圣职责。 It is the sacred duty of every citizen of
the People’s Republic of China to defend the motherland and resist aggression.
依照法律服兵役和参加民兵组织是中华人民共和国公民的光荣义务。 It is the honourable duty of citizens of the
People’s Republic of China to perform military service and join the militia in accordance
with law. 第五十六条 Article Fifty Six 中华人民共和国公民有依照法律纳税的义务。 It is the duty of citizens of the People’s
Republic of China to pay taxes in accordance with law.

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