China’s Constitution – Chapter One – General Principles
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China’s Constitution – Chapter One – General Principles

October 18, 2019

Journey Around China’s Constitution:
Chapter One There is not a day that goes by in most of
our lives where the word “China’ is not mentioned at least once, it is important that
we all take the time to understand the legal foundation of the idea, that is, China. Constitutions can be long and sometimes very
boring to read. However, they are fundamental documents, which provide a framework for the
workings of a society. China’s constitution is no exception. This
series of videos: “China’s Constitution”, sets out in Chinese and English the constitutional
text, the legal basis upon which the Chinese state is established and operates. China’s constitution is comprised of a preamble
and four chapters. We will examine each in turn and highlight a number of significant
concepts – the date and basis upon which the constitution was issued has been included
at the end. 中华人民共和国宪法 Constitution of the People’s Republic of
China 第一章 总  纲 Chapter One General Principles 第一条  中华人民共和国是工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政的社会主义国家 社会主义制度是中华人民共和国的根本制度。禁止任何组织或者个人破坏社会主义制度 Article One The People’s Republic of China is a socialist
state under the people’s democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the
alliance of workers and peasants. The socialist system is the basic system of
the People’s Republic of China. Disruption of the socialist system by any organization
or individual is prohibited. 第二条  中华人民共和国的一切权力属于人民 人民行使国家权力的机关是全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会 人民依照法律规定,通过各种途径和形式,管理国家事务,管理经济和文化事业,管理社会事务 Article Two All power in the People’s Republic of China
belongs to the people. The National People’s Congress and the local
people’s congresses at various levels are the organs through which the people exercise
state power. The people administer State affairs and manage
economic and cultural undertakings and social affairs through various channels and in various
ways in accordance with the provisions of law. 第三条  中华人民共和国的国家机构实行民主集中制的原则 全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会都由民主选举产生,对人民负责,受人民监督 国家行政机关、审判机关、检察机关都由人民代表大会产生,对它负责,受它监督 中央和地方的国家机构职权的划分,遵循在中央的统一领导下,充分发挥地方的主动性、积极性的原则 Article Three The State
organs of the People’s Republic of China apply the principle of democratic centralism. The National People’s Congress and the local
people’s congresses at various levels are constituted through democratic elections.
They are responsible to the people and subject to their supervision. All administrative, judicial and procuratorial
organs of the State are created by the people’s congresses to which they are responsible and
by which they are supervised. The division of functions and powers between
the central and local State organs is guided by the principle of giving full scope to the
initiative and enthusiasm of the local authorities under the unified leadership of the central
authorities. 第四条  中华人民共和国各民族一律平等 国家保障各少数民族的合法的权利和利益,维护和发展各民族的平等、团结、互助关系 禁止对任何民族的歧视和压迫,禁止破坏民族团结和制造民族分裂的行为 国家根据各少数民族的特点和需要,帮助各少数民族地区加速经济和文化的发展 各少数民族聚居的地方实行区域自治,设立自治机关,行使自治权。各民族自治地方都是中华人民共和国不可分离的部分 各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由,都有保持或者改革自己的风俗习惯的自由 Article Four All nationalities in the People’s Republic
of China are equal. The State protects the lawful rights and interests of the minority
nationalities and upholds and develops a relationship of equality, unity and mutual assistance among
all of China’s nationalities. Discrimination against and oppression of any nationality
are prohibited; any act which undermines the unity of the nationalities or instigates division
is prohibited. The State assists areas inhabited by minority
nationalities in accelerating their economic and cultural development according to the
characteristics and needs of the various minority nationalities. Regional autonomy is practised in areas where
people of minority nationalities live in concentrated communities; in these areas organs of self-government
are established to exercise the power of autonomy. All national autonomous areas are integral
parts of the People’s Republic of China. All nationalities have the freedom to use
and develop their own spoken and written languages and to preserve or reform their own folkways and customs. 第五条  中华人民共和国实行依法治国,建设社会主义法治国家 国家维护社会主义法制的统一和尊严
  一切法律、行政法规和地方性法规都不得同宪法相抵触   一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织都必须遵守宪法和法律 一切违反宪法和法律的行为,必须予以追究 任何组织或者个人都不得有超越宪法和法律的特权 Article Five The People’s Republic of China governs the
country according to law and makes it a socialist country under rule of law. The State upholds the uniformity and dignity
of the socialist legal system. No laws or administrative or local regulations
may contravene the Constitution. All State organs, the armed forces, all political
parties and public organizations and all enterprises and institutions must abide by the Constitution
and other laws. All acts in violation of the Constitution or other laws must be investigated. No organization or individual is privileged
to be beyond the Constitution or other laws. 第六条  中华人民共和国的社会主义经济制度的基础是生产资料的社会主义公有制,即全民所有制和劳动群众集体所有制 社会主义公有制消灭人剥削人的制度,实行各尽所能、按劳分配的原则 国家在社会主义初级阶段,坚持公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,坚持按劳分配为主体、多种分配方式并存的分配制度 Article
Six The basis of the socialist economic system
of the People’s Republic of China is socialist public ownership of the means of production,
namely, ownership by the whole people and collective ownership by the working people. The system of socialist public ownership supersedes
the system of exploitation of man by man; it applies the principle of “from each according
to his ability, to each according to his work”. In the primary stage of socialism, the State
upholds the basic economic system in which the public ownership is dominant and diverse
forms of ownership develop side by side and keeps to the distribution system in which
distribution according to work is dominant and diverse modes of distribution coexist. 第七条  国有经济,即社会主义全民所有制经济,是国民经济中的主导力量 国家保障国有经济的巩固和发展 Article Seven The State-owned economy, namely, the socialist
economy under ownership by the whole people, is the leading force in the national economy.
The State ensures the consolidation and growth of the State-owned economy. 第八条
  农村集体经济组织实行家庭承包经营为基础、统分结合的双层经营体制 农村中的生产、供销、信用、消费等各种形式的合作经济,是社会主义劳动群众集体所有制经济 参加农村集体经济组织的劳动者,有权在法律规定的范围内经营自留地、自留山、家庭副业和饲养自留畜 城镇中的手工业、工业、建筑业、运输业、商业、服务业等行业的各种形式的合作经济,都是社会主义劳动群众集体所有制经济 国家保护城乡集体经济组织的合法的权利和利益,鼓励、指导和帮助集体经济的发展 Article Eight The rural collective economic organizations
apply the dual operation system characterized by the combination of centralized operation
with decentralized operation on the basis of operation by households under a contract.
In rural areas, all forms of cooperative economy, such as producers’, supply and marketing,
credit and consumers’ cooperatives, belong to the sector of socialist economy under collective
ownership by the working people. Working people who are members of rural economic
collectives have the right, within the limits prescribed by law, to farm plots of cropland
and hilly land allotted for their private use, engage in household sideline production
and raise privately owned livestock. The various forms of cooperative economy in
cities and towns, such as those in the handicraft, industrial, building, transport, commercial
and service trades, all belong to the sector of socialist economy under collective ownership
by the working people. The State protects the lawful rights and interests
of the urban and rural economic collectives and encourages, guides and helps the growth
of the collective economy. 第九条  矿藏、水流、森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等自然资源,都属于国家所有,即全民所有;由法律规定属于集体所有的森林和山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂除外 国家保障自然资源的合理利用,保护珍贵的动物和植物 禁止任何组织或者个人用任何手段侵占或者破坏自然资源 Article Nine All mineral resources, waters, forests, mountains,
grasslands, unreclaimed land, beaches and other natural resources are owned by the State,
that is, by the whole people, with the exception of the forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed
land and beaches that are owned by collectives as prescribed by law. The State ensures the rational use of natural
resources and protects rare animals and plants. Appropriation or damaging of natural resources
by any organization or individual by whatever means is prohibited.  
第十条  城市的土地属于国家所有 农村和城市郊区的土地,除由法律规定属于国家所有的以外,属于集体所有;宅基地和自留地、自留山,也属于集体所有 国家为了公共利益的需要,可以依照法律规定对土地实行征收或者征用并给予补偿 任何组织或者个人不得侵占、买卖或者以其他形式非法转让土地 土地的使用权可以依照法律的规定转让 一切使用土地的组织和个人必须合理地利用土地 Article Ten Land in the cities is owned by the State. Land in the rural and suburban areas is owned
by collectives except for those portions which belong to the State as prescribed by law;
house sites and privately farmed plots of cropland and hilly land are also owned by
collectives. The State may, in the public interest and
in accordance with law, expropriate or requisition land for its use and make compensation for
the land expropriated or requisitioned. No organization or individual may appropriate,
buy, sell or otherwise engage in the transfer of land by unlawful means. The right to the
use of land may be transferred according to law. All organizations and individuals using land
must ensure its rational use. 第十一条  在法律规定范围内的个体经济、私营经济等非公有制经济,是社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分 国家保护个体经济、私营经济等非公有制经济的合法的权利和利益 国家鼓励、支持和引导非公有制经济的发展,并对非公有制经济依法实行监督和管理 Article Eleven The non-public sectors of the economy such
as the individual and private sectors of the economy, operating within the limits prescribed
by law, constitute an important component of the socialist market economy. The State protects the lawful rights and interests
of the non-public sectors of the economy such as the individual and private sectors of the
economy. The State encourages, supports and guides the development of the non-public sectors
of the economy and, in accordance with law, exercises supervision and control over the
non-public sectors of the economy. 第十二条  社会主义的公共财产神圣不可侵犯
   国家保护社会主义的公共财产 禁止任何组织或者个人用任何手段侵占或者破坏国家的和集体的财产 Article Twelve Socialist public property is inviolable. The State protects socialist public property.
Appropriation or damaging of State or collective property by any organization or individual
by whatever means is prohibited. 第十三条  公民的合法的私有财产不受侵犯 国家依照法律规定保护公民的私有财产权和继承权 国家为了公共利益的需要,可以依照法律规定对公民的私有财产实行征收或者征用并给予补偿 Article Thirteen Citizens’ lawful private property is inviolable. The State, in accordance with law, protects
the rights of citizens to private property and to its inheritance. The State may, in the public interest and
in accordance with law, expropriate or requisition private property for its use and make compensation
for the private property expropriated or requisitioned. 第十四条  国家通过提高劳动者的积极性和技术水平,推广先进的科学技术,完善经济管理体制和企业经营管理制度,实行各种形式的社会主义责任制,改进劳动组织,以不断提高劳动生产率和经济效益,发展社会生产力 国家厉行节约,反对浪费 国家合理安排积累和消费,兼顾国家、集体和个人的利益,在发展生产的基础上,逐步改善人民的物质生活和文化生活 国家建立健全同经济发展水平相适应的社会保障制度 Article Fourteen The
State continuously raises labour productivity, improves
economic results and develops the productive forces by enhancing the enthusiasm of the
working people, raising the level of their technical skill, disseminating advanced science
and technology, improving the systems of economic administration and enterprise operation and
management, instituting the socialist system of responsibility in various forms and improving
the organization of work. The State practises strict economy and combats
waste. The State properly apportions accumulation
and consumption, concerns itself with the interests of the collective and the individual
as well as of the State and, on the basis of expanded production, gradually improves
the material and cultural life of the people. The State establishes a sound social security
system compatible with the level of economic development. 第十五条  国家实行社会主义市场经济 国家加强经济立法,完善宏观调控 国家依法禁止任何组织或者个人扰乱社会经济秩序 Article Fifteen The State practises socialist market economy. The State strengthens economic legislation,
improves macro-regulation and control. The State prohibits in accordance with law
any organization or individual from disturbing the socio-economic order. 第十六条  国有企业在法律规定的范围内有权自主经营 国有企业依照法律规定,通过职工代表大会和其他形式,实行民主管理 Article Sixteen State-owned enterprises have decision-making
power with regard to their operation within the limits prescribed by law. State-owned enterprises practise democratic
management through congresses of workers and staff and in other ways in accordance with
law. 第十七条  集体经济组织在遵守有关法律的前提下,有独立进行经济活动的自主权 集体经济组织实行民主管理,依照法律规定选举和罢免管理人员,决定经营管理的重大问题 Article Seventeen Collective economic organizations have decision-making
power in conducting independent economic activities, on condition that they abide by the relevant
laws. Collective economic organizations practise
democratic management and, in accordance with law, elect or remove their managerial personnel
and decide on major issues concerning operation and management. 第十八条  中华人民共和国允许外国的企业和其他经济组织或者个人依照中华人民共和国法律的规定在中国投资,同中国的企业或者其他经济组织进行各种形式的经济合作 在中国境内的外国企业和其他外国经济组织以及中外合资经营的企业,都必须遵守中华人民共和国的法律 它们的合法的权利和利益受中华人民共和国法律的保护 Article Eighteen The People’s Republic of China permits foreign
enterprises, other foreign economic organizations and individual foreigners to invest in China
and to enter into various forms of economic cooperation with Chinese enterprises and other
Chinese economic organizations in accordance with the provisions of the laws of the People’s
Republic of China. All foreign enterprises, other foreign economic
organizations as well as Chinese-foreign joint ventures within Chinese territory shall abide
by the laws of the People’s Republic of China. Their lawful
rights and interests are protected by the laws of the People’s
Republic of China. 第十九条  国家发展社会主义的教育事业,提高全国人民的科学文化水平 国家举办各种学校,普及初等义务教育,发展中等教育、职业教育和高等教育,并且发展学前教育 国家发展各种教育设施,扫除文盲,对工人、农民、国家工作人员和其他劳动者进行政治、文化、科学、技术、业务的教育,鼓励自学成才 国家鼓励集体经济组织、国家企业事业组织和其他社会力量依照法律规定举办各种教育事业 国家推广全国通用的普通话 Article Nineteen The State undertakes the development of socialist
education and works to raise the scientific and cultural level of the whole nation. The State establishes and administers schools
of various types, universalizes compulsory primary education and promotes secondary,
vocational and higher education as well as pre-school education. The State develops educational facilities
in order to eliminate illiteracy and provide political, scientific, technical and professional
education for workers, peasants, State functionaries and other working people. It encourages people
to become educated through independent study. The State encourages the collective economic
organizations, State enterprises and institutions and other sectors of society to establish
educational institutions of various types in accordance with law. The State promotes the nationwide use of Putonghua
[common speech based on Beijing pronunciation–Tr.]. 第二十条  国家发展自然科学和社会科学事业,普及科学和技术知识,奖励科学研究成果和技术发明创造 Article Twenty The State promotes the development of the
natural and social sciences, disseminates knowledge of science and technology, and commends
and rewards achievements in scientific research as well as technological innovations and inventions. 第二十一条  国家发展医疗卫生事业,发展现代医药和我国传统医药,鼓励和支持农村集体经济组织、国家企业事业组织和街道组织举办各种医疗卫生设施,开展群众性的卫生活动,保护人民健康 国家发展体育事业,开展群众性的体育活动,增强人民体质 Article Twenty One The State develops medical and health services,
promotes modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, encourages and supports the setting
up of various medical and health facilities by the rural economic collectives, State enterprises
and institutions and neighbourhood organizations, and promotes health and sanitation activities
of a mass character, all for the protection of the people’s health. The State develops physical culture and promotes
mass sports activities to improve the people’s physical fitness. 第二十二条  国家发展为人民服务、为社会主义服务的文学艺术事业、新闻广播电视事业、出版发行事业、图书馆博物馆文化馆和其他文化事业,开展群众性的文化活动 国家保护名胜古迹、珍贵文物和其他重要历史文化遗产 Article Twenty Two The State promotes the development of art
and literature, the press, radio and television broadcasting, publishing and distribution
services, libraries, museums, cultural centres and other cultural undertakings that serve
the people and socialism, and it sponsors mass cultural activities. The State protects sites of scenic and historical
interest, valuable cultural monuments and relics and other significant items of China’s
historical and cultural heritage. 第二十三条  国家培养为社会主义服务的各种专业人才,扩大知识分子的队伍,创造条件,充分发挥他们在社会主义现代化建设中的作用 Article Twenty Three The State trains specialized personnel in
all fields who serve socialism, expands the ranks of intellectuals and creates conditions
to give full scope to their role in socialist modernization. 第二十四条  国家通过普及理想教育、道德教育、文化教育、纪律和法制教育,通过在城乡不同范围的群众中制定和执行各种守则、公约,加强社会主义精神文明的建设 国家提倡爱祖国、爱人民、爱劳动、爱科学、爱社会主义的公德,在人民中进行爱国主义、集体主义和国际主义、共产主义的教育,进行辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义的教育,反对资本主义的、封建主义的和其他的腐朽思想 Article Twenty Four The State strengthens the building of a socialist
society with an advanced culture and ideology by promoting education in high ideals, ethics,
general knowledge, discipline and the legal system, and by promoting the formulation and
observance of rules of conduct and common pledges by various sections of the people
in urban and rural areas. The State advocates the civic virtues of love
of the motherland, of the people, of labour, of science and of socialism. It conducts education
among the people in patriotism and collectivism, in internationalism and communism and in dialectical
and historical materialism, to combat capitalist, feudal and other decadent ideas. 第二十五条  国家推行计划生育,使人口的增长同经济和社会发展计划相适应 Article Twenty Five The State promotes family planning so that
population growth may fit the plans for economic and social development. 第二十六条  国家保护和改善生活环境和生态环境,防治污染和其他公害。 国家组织和鼓励植树造林,保护林木 Article Twenty Six The State protects and improves the environment
in which people live and the ecological environment. It prevents and
controls pollution and other public hazards. The State organizes and encourages afforestation
and the protection of forests. 第二十七条  一切国家机关实行精简的原则,实行工作责任制,实行工作人员的培训和考核制度,不断提高工作质量和工作效率,反对官僚主义 一切国家机关和国家工作人员必须依靠人民的支持,经常保持同人民的密切联系,倾听人民的意见和建议,接受人民的监督,努力为人民服务 Article Twenty Seven All State organs carry out the principle of
simple and efficient administration, the system of responsibility for work and the system
of training functionaries and appraising their performance in order constantly to improve
the quality of work and efficiency and combat bureaucratism. All State organs and functionaries must rely
on the support of the people, keep in close touch with them, heed their opinions and suggestions,
accept their supervision and do their best to serve them.  
第二十八条  国家维护社会秩序,镇压叛国和其他危害国家安全的犯罪活动,制裁危害社会治安、破坏社会主义经济和其他犯罪的活动,惩办和改造犯罪分子 Article Twenty Eight The State maintains public order and suppresses
treasonable and other criminal activities that endanger State security; it penalizes
criminal activities that endanger public security and disrupt the socialist economy as well
as other criminal activities; and it punishes and reforms criminals. 第二十九条  中华人民共和国的武装力量属于人民 它的任务是巩固国防,抵抗侵略,保卫祖国,保卫人民的和平劳动,参加国家建设事业,努力为人民服务 国家加强武装力量的革命化、现代化、正规化的建设,增强国防力量
   Article Twenty Nine The armed forces of the People’s Republic
of China belong to the people. Their tasks are to strengthen national defence, resist
aggression, defend the motherland, safeguard the people’s peaceful labour, participate
in national reconstruction and do their best to serve the people. The State strengthens the revolutionization,
modernization and regularization of the armed forces in order to increase national defence
capability. 第三十条  中华人民共和国的行政区域划分如下:
  (二)省、自治区分为自治州、县、自治县、市;   (三)县、自治县分为乡、民族乡、镇   直辖市和较大的市分为区、县 自治州分为县、自治县、市   自治区、自治州、自治县都是民族自治地方
   Article Thirty The administrative division of the People’s
Republic of China is as follows: (1) The country is divided into provinces,
autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the
Central Government; (2) Provinces and autonomous regions are divided
into autonomous prefectures, counties, autonomous counties, and cities; and
(3) Counties and autonomous counties are divided into townships, nationality townships, and
towns. Municipalities directly under the Central
Government and other large cities are divided into districts and counties. Autonomous prefectures
are divided into counties, autonomous counties, and cities.
All autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties are national autonomous
areas. 第三十一条
  国家在必要时得设立特别行政区 在特别行政区内实行的制度按照具体情况由全国人民代表大会以法律规定 Article Thirty One The State may establish special administrative
regions when necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative regions
shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People’s Congress in the light
of specific conditions. 第三十二条  中华人民共和国保护在中国境内的外国人的合法权利和利益,在中国境内的外国人必须遵守中华人民共和国的法律 中华人民共和国对于因为政治原因要求避难的外国人,可以给予受庇护的权利 Article Thirty Two The People’s Republic of China protects
the lawful rights and interests of foreigners within Chinese territory; foreigners on Chinese
territory must abide by the laws of the People’s Republic of China.
The People’s Republic of China may grant asylum to foreigners who request it for political
reasons. Updated: August twenty third, two thousand
and fourteen (Full text after amendment on March fourteenth,
two thousand and four) (1982年12月4日第五届全国人民代表大会第五次会议通过 1982年12月4日全国人民代表大会公告公布施行根据1988年4月12日第七届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》、 Adopted at the Fifth Session of the Fifth
National People’s Congress and promulgated for implementation by the Announcement of
the National People’s Congress on December four, nineteen eighty two. Amended in accordance with the Amendments
to the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China adopted respectively at the First
Session of the Seventh National People’s Congress on April twelve, nineteen eighty
eight, 一九九三年三月二十九日第八届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》、 the
First Session of the Eighth National People’s Congress on March twenty nine, nineteen ninety
three, 一九九九年三月十五日第九届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》二〇〇四年三月十四日第十届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》修正) the Second Session of the Ninth National People’s
Congress on March fifteenth, nineteen ninety nine and the Second Session of the Tenth National
People’s Congress on March fourteenth, two thousand and four)

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