Constitution of Russia | Wikipedia audio article
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Constitution of Russia | Wikipedia audio article

October 11, 2019

The current Constitution of the Russian Federation
(Russian: Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy
Federatsii; pronounced [kənsʲtʲɪˈtutsɨjə rɐˈsʲijskəj fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨɪ]) was
adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993. Russia’s constitution came into
force on December 25, 1993, at the moment of its official publication, and abolished
the Soviet system of government. The current Constitution is the second most long-lived
in the history of Russia, behind the Constitution of 1936.
The 1993 Constitutional Conference was attended by over 800 participants. Sergei Alexeyev,
Sergey Shakhray, and sometimes Anatoly Sobchak are considered as co-authors of the constitution.
The text of the constitution was inspired by Mikhail Speransky’s constitutional project
and current French constitution.A constitutional referendum was held in Russia on 12 December
1993. Of all registered voters, 58,187,755 people (or 54.8%) participated in the referendum.
Of those, 32,937,630 (54.5%) voted for adoption of the Constitution. It replaced the previous
Soviet-era Constitution of April 12, 1978 of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
(which had already been amended in April 1992 to reflect the dissolution of the Soviet Union
and the sovereignty of the Russian Federation), following the 1993 Russian constitutional
crisis.==History=====Constitution of Russia after USSR=====Structure==
The constitution is divided into two sections.===Section One===
Fundamentals of the Constitutional System Rights and Liberties of Man and Citizen
Federative system President of the Russian Federation
Federal Assembly Government of the Russian Federation
Judiciary Local Self-Government
Constitutional Amendments and Revisions===
Section Two===Concluding and Transitional Provisions==
Provisions==Especially on human rights and fundamental
freedoms, the Constitution provides for human rights and freedom of citizen according to
the universally recognised principles and norm of international law as well as the Constitution
and affirms that the listing in the Constitution of the Russian Federation of the fundamental
rights and freedom shall not be interpreted as a rejection and derogation of other universally
recognised human rights and freedom.===Presidency===The Constitution of the Russian Federation
specifies that the President is the Russian head of state, setting domestic and foreign
policy and representing Russian both within the country and internationally [Article 80].
While the original constitution stipulated a four-year term and a maximum of two terms
in succession, the current constitution decrees a six-year term. The four-year term was in
effect while Vladimir Putin served his first and second terms; with the two-term limit
he was barred from the presidency in 2008. Instead, he served as Prime Minister while
Dmitry Medvedev served as president for four years. Putin was re-elected to his third term
in 2012; with the six-year term, he was elected to his fourth term in 2018. Article 81 specifies
the method of election, including a secret ballot; Articles 82 – 93 detail powers, responsibilities,
and limitations of the presidency. The constitution provides for a ‘strong presidency’; not only
is the president the “Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation”,
the president also has the power to dissolve the State Duma.===Executive branch======Legislative branch======Judiciary===
While the Russian Federation Constitution enumerates a strong and independent judicial
branch, the reality is a question of debate. The constitution provides for judicial immunity,
lifetime appointments/”irremovable” justices, and the supremacy of the courts to administer
justice, and affirms that judges need only submit to the constitution and the federal
law. Additionally, Article 123 provides for open and fair trials, as well as equal application
of the law. Three courts are delineated: Constitution Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme
Court of the Russian Federation, the Higher Arbitration Court, each “Appointed by the
Council of the Federation upon the proposals by the President”. The Constitution requires
19 judges for the Constitution Court, but does not specify the number of justices for
the other courts. As of 2002, the Supreme Court has 115 members; due to expansion of
duties in 2014 the number of seats was increased to 170. In September of 2014, the Institute
of Modern Russia reported that the Russian Federation’s Supreme Arbitration Court had
been dissolved, and judicial matters previously under its authority had been transferred to
the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. Despite the ideals written into the constitution,
most citizens do not feel that they will receive justice; additionally, human rights violations
occur regularly.===Local government=====
See also==Institute of State and Law
Law of the Russian Federation Constitution of the Soviet Union
2008 Amendments to the Constitution of Russia Impeachment in Russia
Constitutional economics Constitutionalism==Notes

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