Everything You Need to Know About Planet Earth
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Everything You Need to Know About Planet Earth

October 14, 2019

Planet Earth is the home of every lifeform, known to us, in the universe. Its age is about 1/3 of the age of the universe and, admitted, It is a thing of beauty. a slightly squashed fair with a heavy metal core, and a lighter surface crust, wrapped in a thin sliver of sweet air to breathe, with vast oceans, fertile plains, magnificent mountains, fresh water rivers, streams, lakes and aquifers, orbiting a star which warms us, and gives us energy. But how did our home come in to existence, and what’s it made of? 4.6 billion years ago, Earth was created from the remnants of dead stars, that collected in a giant, dirty gas cloud. The gas cloud became denser in its center, and formed an accretion disk. small particles started clumping together, and building larger and larger objects, until they form the objects we call “Planets” today. This process took 10 to 20 million years, and is still not very well understood. At about this time, when the solar system was young and chaotic, a giant object, about as big as Mars, collided with our home. The impact was violent, and if the object had been more massive, it might have destroyed Earth. Materials from Earth were smashed out into orbit, and formed the Moon, which is the biggest satellite in relation to its planet in the solar system. At this time, Earth was a hot hell, constantly being hit by asteroids, with seas of lava, and a toxic atmosphere. But something was about to change drastically. Earth cooled down. Water from the inside of the Earth wandered to the surface and rained down on Earth, only to vaporize again and become clouds. Millions of asteroids brought more and more water to our planet. All the water on Earth has about this volume compared to Earth. Today, the surface of Earth is 71% water, and 29% land. 97.5% is saline water, while only 2.5% is fresh water. The Fresh water is 69% ice and snow, 30% are ground waters, and only about 1% make up the remaining ground waters. But even this small part is mostly frozen. Only a tiny part of our water is actually lakes and rivers. and an even tinier part is bound in living things. So, gradually the Earth cooled down, and the surface formed a thin crust. But inside the earth, hot rock continue to swirl about, moving the crust from below and breaking it apart. This process is called “Plate Tectonics”, and is happening right now. We’ll make a whole video about it in the future. For now, let’s just say that the crust of Earth consisted of separate giant plates that move around. As they meet, they crumble, and create mighty mountains. OR: violently plunge back down, deeper into Earth, creating deep trenches. That’s the way the highest place on Earth was formed: Mt.Everest, and the deepest: the Mariana Trench. From our perspective, Earth’s mountains and trenches are mighty indeed, but when you look at the Earth in cross-section, you can see how tiny they actually are. The part we stand on is the crust, which is about 50 kilometers thick, though it can vary between 5 and 70 kilometers By the way, the deepest hole ever drilled by man is 12.262 kilometers deep. After the crust, comes the mantle. It’s a silicate rocky shell, and about 2,900 kilometers thick. The mantle consists of the upper mantle, and the lower mantle. The upper mantle has different regions, too. It’s upper part, which is viscous and carries the crust, is called the “Lithosphere.” After that, there comes the “Asthenosphere,” which consists of less mobile, mostly solid material. The lower mantle reaches deep down to the outer core of Earth. Earth’s outer core is a liquid layer of iron and nickel, about 2,266 kilometers thick. Temperatures vary from 4,000℃(7,232℉) to 5,700℃(10,292℉). And in the center, is the inner core. It’s mostly solid, a ball made of an iron-nickel alloy. with a radius of about 1,200 kilometers. 70% of the size of the moon, and about the temperature of the surface of the Sun. It is slowly growing at an estimated rate of about 1mm/year. Now, for some respective, this small layer of crystallized melt products of former molten mantle, is where we live. Then, there’s Earth’s magnetic field. It’s an invisible phenomenon that diverts high energy particles coming from the Sun and other sources, allowing for a stable environment with comparatively little radiation impact on Earth. But why is it there? Actually, we don’t really know a terrible lot about that. We know, it has something to do with the core of Earth. Inside this metal sphere, large electrical currents flow in complicated patterns. They cause a magnetic field, that sort of stabilizes itself according to the laws of electrodynamics. This entire system is called the “Dynamo.” But, don’t let us fool you into thinking we have it all figured out. Speaking of breathtaking information, what about the airy stuff that surrounds us? By volume, dry air consists mostly of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, Carbon, a variable mount of water vapor, and small amounts of other gases. Humans are very dependent on the lowest layer of the atmosphere: the Troposphere – Where the weather is. It’s 12 kilometers thick on average. Above that is the Stratosphere, which is where the ozone layer protects us from the sun’s most aggressive type of light. Above that is the Mesosphere – the coolest place on Earth, with an average temperature around -85℃(-121℉). At about 80 kilometers up, the Thermosphere starts. The transition to space is a fluent one, without clear borders. but humans decided that space starts here. At about 100 kilometers, Earth stops, and space begins, though the atmosphere extends a bit further. In this region, we find the Ionosphere, the aurora borealis, and the ISS, and the outermost layer is the Exosphere, stretching up to 10,000 kilometers. It merges fluently with outer space, where there’s no atmosphere at all. The atoms and molecules in this area are so far apart, that they can travel hundreds of kilometers without colliding with each other. OK. Humans, in their present form, have only been around for 200,000 years. – that’s 0.004% of Earth’s history. Not long, really. And, here we are now, living in a thin, moist layer on a small, wet rock. We call this rock: Earth. It is the product of the universe’s deepest workings, the result of a constant process of creation and destruction, happening all of the universe, all the time, helped by chance, the laws of the universe and random events, we are really lucky.

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  1. I need to know more..!
    How the Carbonic gases of the
    core tuned into oil by distillation under and in the colded layer that
    Dinassors didn,t know?!

  2. my question is why is there a difference between the collision of asteroids?, why were X number of asteroids present for the formation of water and other essential components then but now it's rare, is it a time thing? or are we still receiving asteroids but far smaller than anything that'd harm us

  3. This makes me consider the possibility of God, sometimes.

    It's just too many convenient coincidences catering to every need. Is it really possible to be that fortunate just on random chance?

  4. alright for the first time ever in my life i have an actual impactful sense of scale for how big earth really is and i can't thank you enough for that

  5. Space gave us such a beautiful planet to live on and we're just destroying it and treating it like garbage. This is really unbelievable.. We need to take better care of our planet as we do not have the technology to bring us to another planet like Mars safely nor there will be more generations of ours. Where will our children and grandchildren live if they don't have a planet to live on like this one?! The politics are all too dumb to take some action for this. All they do is promise, but they never make promises happen.

    My grandfather told me a story about how he was the one to build pretty much all the roads in the former states of Yugoslavia. He was going on vacations every year for a few weeks, but now he can't even afford to live normally! Ever since these politics that can't run a country got here, most of the people of the world have been broken. We all demand an action and not some stupid wall which would probably only be used to flex on how you spent money that could go to charity on some useless crap.

    We must take care of our planet right this instant. Not only by cleaning up the ocean and doing stuff like that, but also by fixing the corrupt government.

  6. This channel is literally the very best thing the internet has ever produced. Every man, woman and child should watch these videos. I cannot thank you enough!

  7. This video is fake. The moon and the stars are located in side the firmament and not out side.
    Polaris prove the flat Earth.
    The only way the stars can retain a relative position to each other is if you are not moving and the Universe is a fixed sphere moving around you.
    All satellites images are CGI.
    Satellite are hoax, fakery and lies.

  8. I really get the feeling that the earth which is perfect to sustain life because of how it is made eg. magnetic field protecting us, breathable atmosphere, water, food, fertile land, placement from the sun and everything else that we don't understand but is said to have been by chance that all these complex systems came about, was really created and designed by ya know, a designer. Such as God. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. – Genesis 1:1 KJV. It only makes sense. This phone I typed this on, we as humans understand it, and can recreate it. But yet we don't understand how all the naturally created things work. Eventually we may learn how but, if this phone, being simple enough to understand has an engineer, a designer behind it, then how would the earth and all its complex properties be an accident?

  9. Kurzgesagt: We'll make a video about plate tectonics in the future.
    It's 2019 and we don't have a video about plate tectonics

  10. I love these space videos please talk more of these kind like about the multiverse and the Dyson sphere is one of my favourite vids on this channel and even wished for the poster on my birthday and got it too and its hanging in my room rn. tbh I started getting really interested in physics and astronomy since this channel and I'm 15 and constantly babbling my friends full of nerdy space stuff and probably going to study astrophysics too
    RN I take my knowledge from mostly youtube crash course, this kurzgesagt channel …Wikipedia a bit and books like star-maker(even if its a mostly sci-fi book and very fictional it's very inspiring)
    I'm working on gathering everything I learn about these kinds of things in a notebook with a bunch of little pictures or illustration with the text…IDK I just wanted to say thx for making such inspiring person cause if it weren't for this channel I probably still wouldn't know what to do with my life.

  11. You said that the lithosphere is viscous and that the asthenosphere is solid. I am being taught the opposite by most college professor and I believe that they are correct.

  12. This would be hilarious if it wasn't being passed off as science. Science proves much of this to be false. The rest cannot be proven to be true.

  13. Im glad that my teacher showed this to the class instead of those boring ass powerpoint videos that are cheaply made from wikipedia.

  14. Hearing people say this video is better than school makes me sad. As an earth scientist, some parts of this video are cringe worthy.

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