French Revolution | Unlearn – An initiative by Unacademy | Full Video
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French Revolution | Unlearn – An initiative by Unacademy | Full Video

November 7, 2019


Liberty, Equality, Fraternity when we hear these three terms what comes to our mind Yes, it is the French Revolution. Hello everyone. Welcome to Unacademy in the next few minutes we will learn about The French Revolution, we will discuss the reasons of the French Revolution, what were the events and what were the long and short term impacts. France was in a very messy condition
in between 1789 to 1799 The authorities didn’t understand that how the control was slipping out of their hands In fact speaking about the 1789 revolution that was the one when the absolute monarchy
was rooted out of France Also ten years down the line, it was
Napoleon who came to power and established himself as
the first council of France Even we can talk about ancient region
of France If you talk about France, you will see
bourbon dynasty there. Not just in this one area there were many states in europe wherein the Bourbon Dynasty
established themselves very well. If anyone says that
“I am a ruler and I will rule you” obviously, you will not accept that but there is a way of Divine Rights God has given me the right to rule upon you. And like this, The Bourbon Dynasty was
well established. Arti raised a very good point here, That is the Doctrine of Divine Rights, the Doctrine of Divine Rights is not
limited to France only, the monarchies in India and other region would also rule upon their people with this
Divine Rights concept. In fact, during this time there were
signs of public displeasure because obviously such a theory be floated
and a lot of consciousness going around people will not obey this that much, what will happen eventually is people will show signs of resentment, which did happen but then what the problem was that the absolute Monarchy or the Monarchy
we talk about in general here, they did not believe in anything
of this sort. They did not even take cognizance of it and I think this is the point where they
made a mistake and that is how it manifested into
a big revolution altogether If you talk about the defects of the
ancient region, you can see it happening in the courts, you can see much corruption there, even if we talk about official appointments, we see corruption was also there. You can see a class system, where you see privilege is only for upper classes, here the rulers were very confident, on the concept of Divine Rights, that they could never imagine that these commoners would in future revolt against them. Even there was a particular concept of
imprisonment letters and nobility used this to imprison
their opponents. In fact many people who were imprisoned by this had not even committed a sin or any crime. Interestingly a historian named Jeffrey Merrick called King Louis VI as the
inefficient ruler with poor intelligence. In fact, the Queen of France was the most
hated person of all of France she had spread a lot of nepotism, which can even be seen in the appointment of official capacity, where many of her favorites were given posts. So in a nutshell, the administration was
entirely corrupt and that obviously was not taken well
by the masses Which was one of the reasons that
instigated the people to revolt here, but if we are to pin it down to one reason
that cannot be done because there are several other reasons
for the same. In the next section, let us discuss the various causes and the
reasons for the French Revolution. To begin with, we had the social division
system that was there, so these people had a very well
defined social setup that was there which was known as the
Three Estates System. In order to draw a corollary we can
compare it with the Varna System that was
there in India. So what was happening here was they had divided this society into
three distinct estates Speaking of the first estate
it comprised of the clergy, the second estate was the nobility, and the third estate comprised of
the commoners. Now elaborating upon each of them here, the clergy comprised of the people who were
involved in matters related to the church The second one here was the nobility the nobility was involved in the central
administration and all such matters The commoners which is the
third estate people, they were the ones who were
very very highly burdened, and that is how they resented because
the first two estates had or rather were enjoying
a lot of privileges at the cost of the atrocities that the
third estate people had to bear. If we talk about the third estate, it comprised 98% of total population of France. There were no privileges and voting rights
for 98% of people. They could not even provide their opinions, even after bearing all the taxes that too without any privileges, in such a situation too, the King of France
had no idea that this old tradition could
cause a revolution. Maybe the authority never thought that the third estate who were being crushed
under the shoes of social tradition
for generations will ever get the courage to stand out
and speak for their rights. Not only this but there were several
other reasons as well For instance, King Louis 16th wasted state money in waging the seven
year wars against Britain. In such a situation where the country
assets were being wasted in war, the increasing population of France demanded more food which led to inflation and a brewing
economic crisis in the country. If talking about the wars, then at first
lets discuss the seven years war, this war was actually between France,
Spain and Britain to rule upon America, and Britain became victorious. For which the revenge may have been taken during the American Revolution, when American natives fought against
Britain for freedom. At that time France helped by sending
military and financial support. You are sending military from France for what? To set America free from monarchy? Would this small thing not come in
the army men’s mind, that we are participating in removing monarchy
of Britain for America while our own country is under a monarchy! This issue seems small but it is a really
important cause. So we saw wars being fought, Seven Years War, the American Revolution, lot of money was spent, France itself facing financial crisis, increasing taxes and the complete tax pressure falling only on the commoners. Althogh several financial advisors were
appointed during this whole period but again the same problem occurred the monarchy kept on deciding
whom to listen and did not come to a conclusive decision Turgot was one of them who could have
actually saved France in such a situation, had the monarchy listened to his advises. He said, first of all, no loans should be
given to the state Secondly, there shouldn’t be any new taxes Third, there should be no bankruptcy
declaration to France, and last but not least the reduction
in the expenditure of royal household should be done. The last point which is the reduction in the
expenditure of the royal household In Greece was asked to maybe set austerity
measures after the eurozone crisis As expected he was dismissed on spot And then came Necker who wanted to
walk on Delgado footstep as a civil war against Britain had begun he understood the need of war In return he was rudely criticized by Queen because she didn’t wanted to leave a
luxuries, even in this situation then one by one game But none of them wondered to
displease the royal family in order to remain in the good books
of the royal family They decided to pour all the burden of the
taxes on the commoners shoulder which led them to revolt against
the monarchy The revolution Enlightenment thinkers made the friends revolution ward off an
outbreak of violence by the arguments on rationalization,
secularism as well as secularization Some of these political thinkers were
Voltaire Montesquieu, Rousseau they raise several signs of interrogation
on the ancient traditions and conventions which led to the transfer
of power from monarchy to the commoners another thinker, Voltaire He slowly believed in creativity to
be the biggest force which gives freedom of expression He was a supporter of parliamentary
system of government and my favorite thing. He attacked
the dominance of Catholic church Well that’s pretty interesting
as far as I know raise the voice for the separation of
power between the judiciary Denis Diderot was once of them edited a great encyclopedia which led to
rise of the idea of rationalism in France Russo wrote a book called
“The Social Contract” He discussed about the state being an
outcome of contract between people & rulers in 1789. when there is financial crises in France that time, King Luis XVI he thought to increase the taxes to get support from first and second estate
he can’t increase taxes of them so tax will increase for third estate but third estate denied to give more tax and then, estate general estate general is like a meeting where voting will be done and representetive of 3 estates will come
together and give votes and decession will be taken by that there you can see 300 representetive from
each 1st and 2nd estate came and 600 representetive from the 3rd estate 98% of population was the third estate and as they all came 1st and 2nd estate didn’t gave the vote at next voting, hall gates were closed for
third estate at that day, 500+ representetive of third
estate, declare to go against the Luis XVI True, this was probably the very first step
taken by the 3rd estate people against the monarchy officially declared that the political
authority came from the nation’s people and not from the monarchy This shows that the commons were no
longer afraid of the royel authority Instead they were desperate to get the
actual rights back. Have you heard about The Fall of Bastille The voting rights issue got them into
demolishing an old prison built in the 14th century It was capitalized in the beginning of the
revolution by Lafayette That was the army under the common man his revolutionary action featured a fire burning inside
the third estate people And now the monarchy understood that there
once undisputable bar was slipping off it is notebale that, all the nations of
France was under monarchy monarchy feels threatned by the ideas of democracy and republicanism Then one by one started the
revelutionary wars (1792 – 1802) by France against the monarchy of
Persia, Australia, and samoi in 1793 the King and the Queen of France
were executed after a referendum for the execution People even demanded equality, democracy
and right to vote in country office 1789, 26 Aug the National Assembly approved
declaration of rights of man & citizen Absolutely, citizen rights such as.. All are born free and equal Equality before any law A person is innocent until proven otherwise all are eligible to the public offices freedom of speech and expression And right to hold private property unless the right itself infringes
the public welfare In addition to this the society could also demand
accountability from each civil servant and most importantly the right of democracy The French monarchy I mean, constitutional monarchy Placed a condition in the constitution that people above a certain threshold income
could only vote a majority of third estate could
still not vote Soon after in 1793 Radical Jacobins came to power and you can hear that Tipu sultan joined Jacobin club who are these Jacobins? they kills all of them who were against
French revolution because they wanted to contenue
French Revolution Robespieare, introduced the Jacobins should we need the king or not? Jacobin club kills the kind Luis as well as
the queen king and queen kiled by Jacobin club
in guillotine after the closure of the club The assembly came back to power and
appointed a five member committee in 1795 which was popularly known as.. but due to its corruption, People begin
to question its legitimacy and thus the speed wait for the
rise of Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon was gaining popularity because of
his wins agains the other European nations like Italy, Austria, Prissia He took the weaknesses of the directory And in 1799 he declared himself as first
Consul General of France Napoleon’s army abolished serfdom and modernized the administration of the
conquered territories in Europe He also did some major changes
in the Constitution from the inequalities in society to
reforming the French army He worked on every single thing to save the rights of the common people who had been neglected for generations (1803-1815) are known as the Napoleonic Wars wherein France fought against Europe and brought
the idea of French Revolution to all With the battle of lipstick in 1830 and the establishment of the Concept
of Europe in 1850 the Napoleon rule came to an end Napoleon invaded the rest of Europe nationalism manifested in form of desire
to protect the territory against foreign invasion Thus, the Monarchs consolidates their
hold on power In 19th century Europe witnessed aggressive
motives to expand the territories After Napoleonic wars, Europe saw waves
of pro-democracy revolutions but monarchies were opposed to the
democratic ideas of French Revolution So they used Nationalism as their
shield to defend and if possible, extending
their territories In addition to that the friends revolution
in fact impacted even the nationalism and the ACS countries like India and several
African nations gain independence following the principles
of the French Revolution The most important legacy of
French Revolution was the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity The control of the system slipped off from
the monarchy into the hands of Napoleon Apart from this the revolution spread the
ideas of democracy among the will of Europe Not only Europe we have to mention here that our Indian constitution preamble explicitly mentions the three terms Liberty, equality and fraternity along with
democracy and republic the universal added franchise concept is in line with the idea of Rousseau
that is the agenda Since War history is a very important
component of the UPSC, CSC means it is important for all the students to
study this portion really well A very important note is that in the 2009 mains of the UPSC Civil Service Exam itself a question was asked from the French Revolution The question basically desired from the
aspirant to talk about the impact of French as well as
the American Revolution Similarly, Several questions from the
French Revolution would ask indeed next Mains examinations Not only the French Revolution, also
American and Russian Revolution you will not get direct questions from here because pattern is changed world wide impacts of these revolution how political administration changed? impacts on other countries you will get this types of indepth courses
in Unacademy Plus there are also many top educators So, must check Unacademy Plus once we will keep the similer topics this is here to help you understand the
topic better So, I have asked you was French Revolution worth it or not? Let us know in the coming section what do you think about French Revolution? we will wait for your responses in
the coming section so, that summarizes the topic of
French Revolution in this video so until next video Bye..

Only registered users can comment.

  1. One day we will be studying UNACADEMY EDUCATION REVOLUTION also.
    Hats off to you Venky sir, Arti ma'am and Shreyaa ma'am.

  2. Frenetic revolution play a very important role across the world change the whole politics structure. Very important emerge the idea equality, fraternity, equality & liberty which our framers inscribed in our constitution. This ideas trigger so many revolution worldwide and strengthen the proletariat class for their legal right. Thanks unacademy for this inciative

  3. Hlo sir, this lecture is really helpful sir like unacademy please leave notes in the description in PDF form this will really help in revision.. Thank you sir for this lecture 🙂

  4. Hope you will cover Medival and Modern History of India with same Drama and Presentation.

    BTW Love your Idea💝

  5. Thanks venky sir, Arati mam & sherya mam this is very aswome video for learning french revolution , one day Unacdamy will changing education system revolution in India

  6. I think it is nice to keep switching between Hindi and English. Don't know about others but I noticed that it keeps me more focused,

  7. Great initiative. Looking for similar stuff for other Revolutions/Wars/Uprisings !! 🙂 Good Going Unacademy !

  8. Venkatesh Sir can make you learn history at tips. Am very much thankful to him for keeping my love for history alive. 🙏🏻💐

  9. Tipu Sultan, probably the only ruler of India, who drew inspiration from French Revolution, who was well ahead of his times.
    I salute those freedom fighters for their far sightedness, broader perspective and greater vision for our country.
    May the youth get inspired from those visionaries instead of belittling them in petty discussions.

  10. It's a request from Unacademy team, if they can run a series like "Samvidhaan" for landmark events of every major subject.

  11. Seriously it was like watching a film with that BGM behind. Loved your approach to modern learning. Thank you.
    Wish to see more.
    All the BEST

  12. Dimaag ka dhaaga khul gaya video dekh ke. Unlearn is surely going to be the best platform for students in the upcoming future.

  13. tq for uploading this video. It is more interesting and one could easily learn about french revolution. try to upload like video in english

  14. The worth of the French revolution in the modern society is unmatched , french revolution formed the basis of democracy which includes people participation and welfare of the common peopel

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