How a Bill Becomes a Law: Crash Course Government and Politics #9
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How a Bill Becomes a Law: Crash Course Government and Politics #9

August 23, 2019


This episode of Crash Course is brought to
you by Squarespace. Hi, I’m Craig, and this is Crash Course: Government
and Politics, and today, I’ve got my work cut out for me because I’m going to try to
do something that every single social studies teacher in the U.S. has tried to do, even
though there is a perfectly good cartoon you could just show. It’s from the ’70s. It’s
catchy. It’s fun. That’s right, today we’re going to learn how
a bill becomes a law. But we’re not going to be able to license the Schoolhouse Rock song. I’m just a bill, yes, I’m only a – you know
what has a bill? An eagle. [Theme Music] Okay, I think the only way we’re going to possibly
be able to compete with Schoolhouse Rock is to jump right into the Thought Bubble with our own
cartoon. And to stop talking about Schoolhouse Rock. So let’s start at the very beginning, which
in this case is a Congressman or a Senator introducing a bill. The real beginning is
when he or she has an idea for a law. And even this might come from an interest group,
the executive branch, or even the constituents. But the formal process begins with the
legislator introducing the bill. After it’s introduction, bill is referred to a committee. Although most bills can start in either house,
except for revenue bills, which must start in THE House, let’s imagine that our bill
starts in the Senate, because it’s easier. Congress has the power to make rules concerning
the Armed Forces, so let’s say this is a bill about naming helicopters. Anywho, this bill
would be referred to the Senate Armed Services Committee, which would then write up the bill
in formal, legal language, or markup, and vote on it. If the markup wins a majority in the committee,
it moves to the floor of the full Senate for consideration. The Senate decides the rules for debate – how
long the debate will go on and whether or not there will be amendments. An open rule
allows for amendments and a closed rule does not. Open rules make it much less likely for
bills to pass because proponents of the bill can add clauses that will make it hard for
the bill’s proponents to vote for. If opponents of our helicopter name bill were
to add a clause repealing the Affordable Care Act or something, some supporters of the bill
probably wouldn’t vote for it. If a bill wins the majority of the votes in the Senate, it
moves onto the House. Thanks Thought Bubble. We’re going to have to go the rest of the
way without fancy animation. But I could sing it. Laaaa- I’m not going to sing it. I’m not
going to use a funny voice. The Senate version of the bill is sent to
the House. The House has an extra step, in that all bills before they go out to the floor
of the House must go to the Rules Committee, which reports it out to the House. If a bill
receives the majority of votes in the House, 238 or more to be exact, it passes. YAY! Now, this is important. The exact same bill
has to pass both houses before it can go to the president. This almost never happens though.
Usually the second house to get the bill will want to make some changes to it, and if this
happens, it will go to a conference committee, which is made up of members of both houses.
The conference committee attempts to reconcile both versions of the bill and come up with a new
version, sometimes called a compromise bill. Okay, so if the Conference Committee reaches
a compromise, it then sends the bill back to both houses for a new vote. If it passes,
then it’s sent to the President. And then the President signs the bill, boom, done.
That’s the only option. Oh, no, there’s two other options, actually. Option 2 is for him to veto the bill and we’ve
gone through all of this for nothing. The 3rd option is only available at the end
of a congressional term. If the President neither signs nor vetoes the bill, and then
in the next 10 days, Congress goes out of session, the bill does not become a law.
This is called a pocket veto, and is only used when the President doesn’t want a law to pass,
but for political reasons, doesn’t want to veto it either. Congress can avoid this all together by passing
bills and giving them to the President before that 10 day period. If the President neither
signs nor vetoes a law and Congress remains in session for more then 10 days, the bill
becomes a law without the President’s signature. So that’s the basic process, but there is one wrinkle,
or if you want to be all Madisonian about it, check, on the president’s power. If Congress really wanted a bill and the President
has vetoed it, they can override the veto if it gets a 2/3rd majority in both houses on
a second vote. Then the bill becomes a law over the President’s signature. Aw snap! This is really rare, but it does happen once
in a great while. The Taft-Hartley Act of 1953 passed over Truman’s veto. I like to
call it the Tartley Act. Shorten it. It’s a portmanteau. It doesn’t happen that often because if the
President knows that two thirds of the Congressmen supported the bill, he won’t veto it. And
if Congress knows that they don’t have two thirds support, they won’t try to override
the veto. Nobody wants to try something and fail in public, right? Except for me obviously,
if you look at my other YouTube channel, WheezyWaiter. Eh. So there you have it, how a bill becomes a
law. I’ll admit, the process is a little cumbersome, but it’s designed that way so that we don’t
get a lot of stupid or dangerous laws. Still this doesn’t quite explain why so few laws
get passed. Bills have a very high mortality rate, and it’s way more common for a bill
not to become a law than to become one. The main reason is that there are so many places
where a bill can die. The first place that a bill can die is at
the murderous hands of the speaker or majority leader, who refuses to refer it to committee.
Then the committee can kill the bill by not voting for it at all. And if they do vote
and it doesn’t get a majority then the bill doesn’t go to the floor, and it’s dead. In the Senate the murderous leadership can
kill a bill by refusing to schedule a vote on it. And any senator can filibuster the
bill which is when he or she threatens to keep debating until the bill is tabled. It’s
a bit more complex than that, but the filibuster rules have changed recently, so hopefully we won’t
have as many filibuster threats in the future. The House doesn’t have a filibuster but it
does have a Rules Committee that can kill a bill by not creating a rule for debate.
The entire House can also vote to recommit the bill to committee, which is a signal to
drop the bill or change it significantly. And of course if either house fails to give
a bill a majority of votes, then it dies. This applies to compromise bills coming out
of conference committees too. Even if a bill gets a majority in both houses then there’s that whole
veto thing that the President can do. Remember? So, there are many more ways for a bill to
be killed than to become a law. These hurdles are sometimes called veto gates. They can’t call ’em Bill Gates because that’s
a person. Veto gates make it very difficult for Congress
to act unless there’s broad agreement or the issue is uncontroversial like naming a post
office or thanking specific groups of veterans for their service, which are two things that
Congress actually does pretty efficiently. Think of all the post offices that aren’t
named. You can’t think of one, can you? Name it. You can’t. It’s not named. Veto gates are purely procedural, which means
they don’t draw a lot of attention from the media. The easiest way for Congress to kill
bills is to simply not vote on them or even schedule votes for them. This way they don’t
have to go on record as being for or against a bill, just whether they support having a vote. And
constituents rarely check up on this sort of thing. So I hope I managed to do a good job of both
explaining how a bill becomes a law and why it’s difficult for most bills to pass. And
I hope I looked good doing it, as well. This might be frustrating but it’s strangely
comforting to consider that Congress and the government as a whole were designed to make it
difficult to get things done. A single super-powerful executive like a king can be very efficient, but also
tyrannical. We don’t like tyrannical around here. The founders set up these structural hurdles
of the bicameral Congress and the presidential role in legislation to reduce the likelihood
that authoritarian laws would pass. Congress added procedural hurdles like committees and
filibusters for the same reason. You can argue that Congress has become dysfunctional, but
looking at the process of lawmaking, it’s hard to argue that this isn’t by design. So next time someone accuses you of being difficult,
you just say, “I was behaving in a senatorial manner.” Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next episode Crash Course: Government and Politics is produced
in association with PBC Digital Studios. Support for Crash Course US Government comes from Voqal.
Voqal supports nonprofits that use technology and media to advance social equity. Learn more
about their mission and initiatives at voqal.org. Crash Course was made with all of these nice
people. Thanks for watching.

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  1. Sometimes we private citizens do not think ordinances could improve lives more than funds for them, until something gets on our nerves, then we do not think funds for them could improve lives more than ordinances.

  2. Maybe you could use some pics and video clips of Congress in committees and Conference Committees that include more women members of Congress… I only saw about 3 pics that even had women in them. A lot of the pics of Congress looked like they were from the 1950s!

  3. This video has inaccuracies. First, the Taft-Hartley Act was passed in 1947 and vetoed by Truman; 1953 is the start of the Eisenhower Administration. Additionally, the Senate does not have close and open rules, that is decided by the House Rules Committee. The video skips subcommittees as well. Finally, the filibuster rules were changed for nominations of Cabinet officials and judges not Senate law-making.

    Poorly done Crash Course.

    Love,

    AP US Government and Politics class in Indiana.

  4. Congress men senator I WANT 2 MAKE A LAW B***S!!

    So the leg and the jud work together have to vote

    Give to prez

    They do 2/3 vote if the prez doesn't like the bill (not a law) aka veto. So 2/3 would win.

  5. This is a bald faced lie. Bills, at the federal level do NOT come from the "constituency" – as in me and you. They come almost exclusively from special interest groups, lobbyists, corporations, etc. This guy is an idiot and needs to do his homework better.

  6. I like this-this is so good in help full 😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁😁

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  11. "think of all the post offices that aren't named. you can't think of one, can you? name it. you can't. it's not named." lol it's just like being back in 3rd grade with all of those smart-alecs.

  12. So awesome ! This video helped me a lot! I have a project for my gov. class on how bills are made laws. The School House Rock video gave me the basic idea, but your video really helped me understand the details! Thanks a bunch!

  13. What about the house putting a hold on a bill and the cloture rule for the senate. Does the House rules Commitee review all bills even when a bill starts in a house?

  14. Watching in 2018 in an attempt to understand what the hell is going on right now in government over the looming government shutdown and the wall. Lol

  15. Our founders didn't consider that the tyrant that needs to be stopped may be the president and this complicated process makes it harder for congress to stop him.

  16. I wonder who would pass the law "18 to party" here in n.y.? Parents do you like the fact that your eighteen yr. Old daughter is allowed in a bar or club to party and dance with 21 yr. Old (and older) men ? Who wants a change?

  17. Thanks for the video!

    Sadly, I have a B.A. in Political Science. I learned quite a bit.

    More like a BS! Ehhhh….

  18. Should have got AOC to narrate this video. It would be a good laugh hearing her explain all of this

  19. eagles dont have bills they have beaks.
    you should said duck, or plataypus or anything with an actual bill.

    who wrote your line. fire that person immediately.

  20. Here in New Jersey, a bill to legalize marijuana does not become a law when it is 2 votes shy in the Senate and gets yanked. Like you said, nobody wants to try and fail in public.

    Still salty about it. I pray it passes by our hand in 2020!

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