How was India Formed | Princely States and Jammu and Kashmir
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How was India Formed | Princely States and Jammu and Kashmir

September 9, 2019


Hey Everybody, my name is Priya and you are watching Finology Legal! This is current political India map, in which there are 29 states and 7 union territories. Before 2019 map, 1956 map had come which talks about how states was divided on the base of lingustic way. Before 1956 map, 1950 map had come in which we enacted the Constitution. But…In today’s video we will see this map.The whole area is British India. Now will talk about boundaries and territories.. So British India and Afghanistan was separated through this line which called as “Durand Line” – it was created by 1893. Now lets talk about 1947 and the importance of 1947. What is the importance of 1947? 15th august 1947 we got our independence. How territories of British India will be divided? British India which part will become India and Pakistan. All this thing was decided by Mountbatten Plan,1947. Mountbatten Plan had two objectives. First Objective: British India was divided into India and Pakistan two dominance. Second objective: In British India, which are the Princely states. So, what will happen with Princely sates? Princely states territories will come under India or Pakistan that has to decided. Now British Government or Muslim Leak decided that the area in which Muslim Population is more.So, that are will go to Pakistan. After hearing all this thing Mountbatten Plan was created of 1947. Mountbatten Plan was enacted by British Parliament passed the Indian Parliament Act, 1947. According to which India and Pakistan named to dominance was going to be created. In this plan, the biggest problem was created in Punjab and Bengal provinces. Because in this two provinces, the population Hindu and Muslim was equal. So, to create the boundaries in this area. Two boundary commission was appointed. Boundary commission was appointed for Punjab and Bengal. Both the boundary commission head was Sir Cyril Radcliffe, who reached India on 18th August 1947. By hearing this all things, we feel the work is very easy. Let’s know what difficulties had been faced? First problem, was limited time. In both the areas the boundary has to be created within 5 weeks. Second problem, limited expertise. Before, this Sir Cyril Radcliffe never came to India. So, Sir Cyril Radcliffe was not aware about Indian cultural differences or existing religious tension of India. Third problem and most important problem was that to create the two boundary. Sir Cyril Radcliffe was provided maps and census report was given it is not precised and was outdated. So, 14th August, 1947 Pakistan and 15th August,1947 India. They both got there independence’s. Two separate nation was existing. Both the country demaracted by the separate boundary which was released after two days of independence on 17th August, 1947. This both the line is called “Radcliffe Line”. This was the Mounbatten Plan or Indian Independence first objective, for creating India and Pakistan country. Let’s know, the second objectives of Mountbatten Plan. 17th august 1947 India and Pakistan map seen like this. In this map green color signifies the territory which was princely states according to Mountbatten plan or Indian Independence Act. Princely sate have the option that, they can join India or Pakistan or declare themselves as independent state. So, the Princely state was to be integrated in India and it was big task. Princely state was integrated in India and people join to integrate it like Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, V.P. Menon and Jawaharlal Nehru and Lord Mountbatten was helping in this work. All the tehnics had been used. So, that Princely state can be integrated in India. Had a talk with all the Maharaja’s and negotiation had been done. Do you know Negotiation has a approach i.e.”Carrot and Stick approach”. In this case how we had applied the Carrot and Stick approach. On one hand we are talking about incentives . We uses to say that, the kings was integrate in India. we will give you lots of incentives. Incentives like “Privy Purse”. Privy Purse is a kind of a fund, in which we say that after joining India. we will provide you fund for maintenance and expenditure. This was incentive or carrot. Now talk about stick. In Stick , the Princely state which from Radcliffe line was at the side of India. Radcliffe Line who was at the side of India and if you will not integrated in India. If you not join the India. So, India will take military action against Princely State. Totally Pakistan and India had 565 Princely State. India has 552 Princely State and Pakistan has 13 Princely state. From this 552 states, we had signed the “Instrument of Accession” with 549 states and they became the part of India. Instrument of Accession is like a treaty between Indian Government and Maharaja of Princely State. In this treaty, there is an condition on which bases Princely State will integrate with India. Like Indian Government offer Privy Purse to Princely State. Princely State on that behalf join India. Princely State say that it will fully adopt Indian Constitution. Total 549 states to join India had signed Instrument of Accession. 3 state which was not able to be integrated in India were Jungarh, Hyderbad and Jammu & Kashmir. Let see, what problem this states were facing? In Jungarh, the Nazam was Muslim but, most of the population was Hindu in majority. The Nazam had to go Pakistan and the population had to become the part of India. Due to this Jungarh had done referendum. Referendum is a voting system, in which people decide they want to become the part of India or Pakistan. So, the referendum happened in Jungarh from this it was decided that Jungarh will become part of India. Let’s talk about Hyderbad Amongst the Princely State the Hyderbad was the richest and the biggest state. Hyderbad problem was different. The Nazam of Hyderbad neither want join Pakistan or India. The Nazam want to establish Hyderbad as an Independent State. During the time of Independence, the whole nation was facing religious tension, lawlesseness or lootmaar was going on and that similar thing was happening in Hyderbad. Hyderbad forces was not able to control the lawlessness. So, to help Hyderbad the Indian Government mainly Sadar Vallabhbhai Patel lauch “Operation Polo”. In Operation Polo the neighbouring state was sending the police for assisting them. Due to this 19th September 1948, Indian Government signed the Instrument of association with Nazam of Hyderbad. Hyderbad is integrated in India. Let’s talk about the 3rd state i.e., Kashmir. After independence, when we were making our Constitution because of which acts as a protector of Rights Before this J&K is that princely state which had their own legislation and on the bases of those legislation, the citizen of J&K was getting lots of rights and protection already. From those rights and protection, there was one right i.e., Right to property. When J&K was to be integrated in India or had to adopt the Indian Constitution and one question has been raised. Along with the question to adopt, another question was raised that right to property which was available to them from before will be their right only. Right to Property will be open to other citizens of India. The problem in Kashmir was as similar with Jungar and Hyderbad. Kashmir majority population was Muslim but, the Raja was Hindu. When Mountbatten Plan was made created. Many people thought that Kashmir will become part of Pakistan. Maharaja Hari Singh signed a Standstill agreement with India and Pakistan.It means that, Maharaja neither he want to become part of India nor Pakistan. Maharaja want to keep J&K as Independent state. On October 1947, Pakistan slowly started sending his army towards the Kashmir and started occupying the territory of Kashmir and tried to remove the Maharaja from its post. Maharaja Hari Singh got scared and ask assistance from Indian Government. But, Indian government ask on what basis or on what position or relation we should give you the assistance and you are not the part of India. On 26th October 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh and Indian government signed Instrument of Accession. J&K became part of India. After signing of IOA Indian Government send his army to J&K and remove Pakistan forces. The result of the war is that in 1st January 1949 both the country had an agreement of ceasefire had been signed. The result of Ceasefire agreement is LOC [Line of Control]. It was decided that, both the country army, how much terrority has been occupied. So, that terrority will be occupied by respected country. J&K 2/3rd part was with India and 1/3rd part was with Pakistan. After signing Instrument Of Accession J&K new leader was Sheikh Abdullah. Instrument of Accession is an treaty, in which lots of conditions and on which bases integration is happening. When Kashmir agreement happened, we signed Instrument of Accession. So, why IOA is so different and and how Article 35A and Article 370 came in existence. We will discuss the existence of Article 35A and Article 370 on the second part of the video.

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  1. I could see the guilt in your face and realized the hypocricy when you narrates the Hyderabad story …biased as hell. Also why did pakistan send troops to Kashmir in 1947? The maharaja started a genocide

  2. I am amazed at how beautifully you paint the picture of Operation Polo, despite how bloody it was; you have used the word *assist*.

    I hope at least real students of history don't depend on your video.

  3. Do not spread wrong information to the world. As India attacked on Hyderabad princely state to invade it and killed one million people (soldiers, women and children). I lost many family members , relatives and known people under that Indian attacked. Hyderabad did not willingly merge in India. If you do not know study it properly before you make any video.

  4. very nice…few may criticize..as their job is….nicely depicted…bst of luc..keep on..for the benefit of citizens also to demoralize the bloody tukde tukde gang and traitors

  5. Request you Plz explain how Nepal always since history remained independent. Never was a part of India or China.

  6. Mem, your explanation is very clear.Please can you prepare a video on Article 309 of the Indian Constitution and upload in YouTube Video ? which this may help to student ?

  7. apoeration polo ..police action liar this was full scale of military action imposed by india to occupied a independent sovereign state by forcely….u have a little knowledge about history. ..

  8. Kashmir mai Muslim zyada the Lekin India ne zabardasti qabza kar Liya. Thanks to my Pashtoon tribe heroes jinho ne Kashmir ka buht sara hissa azad kar Liya.

  9. Sala yahi samaj me nahi aata he ki hamari history ki teacher kya daru pi k class lene aati thi kya? Aajtak kisi bhi schhol me koi bhi history teacher ne yeh sab nahi sikhaya hoga… Thanks madam.. very clear information… Now i understand some facts

  10. You have forget that:-

    Nagaland decided to be an independent but India didn't allow them and annex it.

    Manipur was completely different nation but it was annexed by India.

    NEFA was a integral part of tibet. British conquer it and named as NEFA and then gave it to India. Which was later named as arunachal pradesh.

  11. Be sincere young lady and speak the truth. Half truth is as good as telling a lie. I am amazed at how seemingly sincere looking people can speak lies with such a flair. You mentioned the indian forces went into Hyderabad to assist the Nizam to control riots, which is absolutely a lie. The truth is that indian forces went in to capture Hyderabad by force. Whether that was justified or not is another question but that is what the truth is. Referendum was done in Junagarh (whose king was Muslim, but population Hindu) which seems just and fair, but shouldn't the same referendum been done in J&K. Is that not treachery and deception from india?? Talk about that treachery in the video if you have guts.

  12. Sirf Pakistan bana tha hindustan to tha hi. Sikhistan bhi ban sakta tha lekin ab wo pachtate hen or rehenge khalistan k lie.

  13. India was formed in 1947 by putting a sword on the throats of Princely States. In 1947 the British left. And the poor princely states were forced under the rule of gobar eating hindi speaking toiletless fools who reside primarily in BIMARU states.
    The progressive Princely states are now being damaged so badly we can compare them with Sub Saharan African countries.

  14. Thank you very much MAM…. πŸ•‰οΈ πŸ› πŸ™… I never loved social science but it is great
    …..

  15. Lady why are you keep harping on peoples religion? Peoples religion should not interfere in politics ,abd crime is done by all people of a country
    That is one of the reasons of Modi abrogation of both 370 and 35a articles and not including the kashmiri people and there politicians which is by Law wrong and illigal that is a writren fact.
    What makes you think that Kashmiri youngsters would now fight fir India, they don't trust Modi and his goverment that is a fact
    No communications via land line ,mobil or internet from within Kashmir that to is a fact not a lie .
    What is happening to our families in Kashmir.?

  16. Why not offer the referendum to the people of princely state of Jammu and Kashmir like Junnagardh? Oh sorry because it would not suit India.

  17. Free Kashmir, Kashmir belongs to Kashmiri People, Just because Britain controlled most of south Asia does not make it all india, all people do not want to be india.

  18. Sorry maam, aapka video pasand nahi aaya.. itna simplistic view, is like distorting facts.. looks like video for kids of primary school..
    And i hope this doesnt get to their hands either.. we have been taught lot of bullshit in our school.. we dont want this to carry on to the next generations..

  19. Azad Kashmir k log to Pakistan k sath khush hai per IOK k log India k sath rehna nahi chahte.India start se un pr zulm kr raha aur ab tk kur raha hai. Shame India Shame.

  20. When there could be a referendum in a state whose prince (nizam) wanted to go with Pakistan, why can’t there be referendum in Muslim majority Kashmir whose population does not wanna be part of India ?

  21. My history has been very bad… I don’t know how far the information given in this video is correct but I really liked the way you explained. I wish you were my history teacher… I would have developed interest in the subject… πŸ‘ŒπŸΌπŸ‘πŸΌ

  22. The solution conceived for Kashmir by Maharaja Hari Singh, still continues to be the best solution for Kashmir. The British were great statesmen. One of their important strategies was to put a Muslim ruler in charge of a Hindu majority, and the vice versa as in the case of Kashmir. This arrangement worked quite well for all concerned. At the time of partition Maharaja Hari Singh was confronted with a very difficult decision. He knew his people. He knew the culture of the valley. Were it feasible at that time in history, Hari Singh would have wanted J&K to be independent from both India as well as Pakistan. For all sorts of historic and political reasons that did not happen. The people of Kashmir are unique, not because of their religion, but because of their culture. Culturally they show very little semblance to either Pakistan or with India. Hence Maharaja Hari Singh approach still seems the most rational solution.

  23. Motherfucker…If you did referendum in junagardh why didn't you did it in Ksshmir which had muslim majority???😑😑😑

  24. In 1948 Nehru started the process of making the independent princely States join India. The state of Hyderabad had a Hindu majority and a Muslim ruler (Nizam) who wanted to join Pakistan or remain independent. So in September 1947, the Indian Armed Forces invaded the Nizam-ruled princely state, annexing it into the Indian Union. Therefore the people of Azad Kashmir rebelled against Harri Singh, the Hindu ruler of the majority Muslim state of Kashmir in 1948 and took the area that is now called Azad Kashmir. So Nehru went to the UN and promised to hold an election where the people of Kashmir could decide if they wanted to join India or Pakistan and asked for a cease fire but the elections never happened. Article 370 in the Indian constitution was put there to garantee Kashmir autonomy, until an election is held that allows the Kashmiri people to decide their future. With the removal of Article 370 in the Indian constitution the Kashmiris feel betrayed and feel that the solution is simple, just let the people decide. The removal of Article 370 means that the contract India had with Kashmir is broken and they want independence. The Kashmiri people never liked Harri Singh whose grandfather Maharaja Gulab Singh Jamwal, who was originally with the Sikh Empire switched sides during the First Anglo-Sikh War and was given Kashmir By the East India Company. The Treaty of Amritsar (1846) formalised the sale by the East India Company to Gulab Singh for 7,500,000 Nanakshahee Rupees of all the lands in Kashmir that were ceded to them by the Sikhs by the Treaty of Lahore. The Kashmiri public was heavily taxed to pay this money and continuously rebelled against the Maharaja Gulab Singh and Harri Singh. (This could also be found in the census of Indian 1910 in the British Library in Euston.) The Kashmiris feel that the BJP wants to bring people from other parts of India to change the population balance. It was the kashmiri Hindu pandits who wanted article 370 in the Indian constitution as a protection for the kashmiris as Harri Singh felt that the kashmiris are poor and that they will lose their lands to people who wanted to buy holiday homes. It is the same in Azad Kashmir. This provision was supposed to last until there was an election where the kashmiris could decide their own future. This law existed in Kashmir before India was created. That is why the British could not buy holiday homes there and stayed in house boats on Dal lake. Such laws exists in other parts of India too. Modi, BJP and RSS are using the issue of the kashmiri hindu pandits to divide the Hindus and the Muslims of kashmir and many kashmiri pandits have spoken out against them. They also do not want to live in prison camps guarded by Indian troops in the kashmir Valley. They want to live in the kashmir Valley with the cooperation in the Muslims of kashmir as they have done so for centuries. They regard them selves as Kashmiris and are also against the change of the status of Kashmir. But the Indian media only shows the Kashmiri Pandits who are with the BJP. Kashmir has been a state for thousands of years and many towns are from the Indus Valley Civilization period. Now it is no longer a state and the Kashmiris feel that their identity has been robbed. The kashmiri hindu pandits fear that they will also be priced out of the market in Jammu as people from else where buy holiday homes. They will also lose jobs as currently only kashmiris could get government jobs in kashmir and the Kashmiri Pandits have traditionally relied upon government jobs. All Kashmiri communities have suffered a lot. There are around a hundred thousand Kashmiri Hindu Pandits living as refugees in Jammu and over a million Kashmiri Muslim refugees from the Indian Side of Kashmir living in Azad Kashmir and Pakistan. Over 120,000 have been killed. Rape has been used as a tool of war by the Indian Armed Forces against the Kashmiri women and tens of thousands of Kashmiri women have been raped, and no one has been prosecuted due to the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA). The Kashmiris feel that they should be heard and a solution found before there is a Nuclear war that impacts everyone on the planet. The Kashmiris do not want more death. Every day civilians are killed on the Line Of COntrol dividing the two side of Kashmir and it divides Kashmiri families. Its a sad state of affairs. BJP also killed Gandhi and now that the BJP has a majority the minorities in India are suffering from their policies. Ghandi did not want sectarian violance in India that RSS promoted and he paid the ultimate price. Since RSS did not even spare their leader, who got them independence, how will they spare the minorities.

  25. The UN said that there needs to be an election. The people of Kashmir rebelled against the mahraja because they did not want to be invaded by india like India invaded Hydrabad

  26. Story full of Indian BS.l. Abhi tere dhoodh ke daant phate nahi…ke tum hammen sikha gi…
    Load of lies and nothing.
    1. In Hyderabad ruler was muslim who wanted independent but majority Hindu population was taken into consideration so Indian forced Nizam to annex in India. You are right riots were engineered by Patel and Nehru to creat law and order problem in Hyderabad. Police from neighboring states were not sent for peace but to fight Nizam and force him to join India. First lie busted.
    2. In juna gudh why refrendum was adopted and not the choice of Prince who wanted to join Pakistan. Another lie busted.
    3. And in Kashmir why refrendum was not conducted if the majority population was muslim like in Juna Gurrdh. who wanted to go with Pakistan . Third lie busted
    In all three states India didn't follow rules of partition of princely states as set by the commission. India followed only when it favored to Indian interests.
    Don't try to distort the history just to sell your narative.

  27. Subscribed…I don't know you much nor the history…but I feel you can teach me more through your channel along with your increase in knowledge with your age 😍 nice explanations.πŸ‘Œ

  28. Kashmir was a Muslim majority ..no referundum done there
    thats shows that a Muslim man leading a hindu majority region was more honest than a Hindu .. in junagar he went for referndum.. nd in Kashmir.. no referndum was done.. poor kashmiries still suffering.. cz of that stupid Hindu..

  29. In 1948 Nehru started the process of making the independent princely States join India. The state of Hyderabad had a Hindu majority and a Muslim ruler (Nizam) who wanted to join Pakistan or remain independent. So in September 1947, the Indian Armed Forces invaded the Nizam-ruled princely state, annexing it into the Indian Union. Therefore the people of Azad Kashmir rebelled against Harri Singh, the Hindu ruler of the majority Muslim state of Kashmir in 1948 and took the area that is now called Azad Kashmir. So Nehru went to the UN and promised to hold an election where the people of Kashmir could decide if they wanted to join India or Pakistan and asked for a cease fire but the elections never happened. Article 370 in the Indian constitution was put there to garantee Kashmir autonomy, until an election is held that allows the Kashmiri people to decide their future. With the removal of Article 370 in the Indian constitution the Kashmiris feel betrayed and feel that the solution is simple, just let the people decide. The removal of Article 370 means that the contract India had with Kashmir is broken and they want independence. The Kashmiri people never liked Harri Singh whose grandfather Maharaja Gulab Singh Jamwal, who was originally with the Sikh Empire switched sides during the First Anglo-Sikh War and was given Kashmir By the East India Company. The Treaty of Amritsar (1846) formalised the sale by the East India Company to Gulab Singh for 7,500,000 Nanakshahee Rupees of all the lands in Kashmir that were ceded to them by the Sikhs by the Treaty of Lahore. The Kashmiri public was heavily taxed to pay this money and continuously rebelled against the Maharaja Gulab Singh and Harri Singh. (This could also be found in the census of Indian 1910 in the British Library in Euston.) The Kashmiris feel that the BJP wants to bring people from other parts of India to change the population balance. It was the kashmiri Hindu pandits who wanted article 370 in the Indian constitution as a protection for the kashmiris as Harri Singh felt that the kashmiris are poor and that they will lose their lands to people who wanted to buy holiday homes. It is the same in Azad Kashmir. This provision was supposed to last until there was an election where the kashmiris could decide their own future. This law existed in Kashmir before India was created. That is why the British could not buy holiday homes there and stayed in house boats on Dal lake. Such laws exists in other parts of India too. Modi, BJP and RSS are using the issue of the kashmiri hindu pandits to divide the Hindus and the Muslims of kashmir and many kashmiri pandits have spoken out against them. They also do not want to live in prison camps guarded by Indian troops in the kashmir Valley. They want to live in the kashmir Valley with the cooperation in the Muslims of kashmir as they have done so for centuries. They regard them selves as Kashmiris and are also against the change of the status of Kashmir. But the Indian media only shows the Kashmiri Pandits who are with the BJP. Kashmir has been a state for thousands of years and many towns are from the Indus Valley Civilization period. Now it is no longer a state and the Kashmiris feel that their identity has been robbed. The kashmiri hindu pandits fear that they will also be priced out of the market in Jammu as people from else where buy holiday homes. They will also lose jobs as currently only kashmiris could get government jobs in kashmir and the Kashmiri Pandits have traditionally relied upon government jobs. All Kashmiri communities have suffered a lot. There are around a hundred thousand Kashmiri Hindu Pandits living as refugees in Jammu and over a million Kashmiri Muslim refugees from the Indian Side of Kashmir living in Azad Kashmir and Pakistan. Over 120,000 have been killed. Rape has been used as a tool of war by the Indian Armed Forces against the Kashmiri women and tens of thousands of Kashmiri women have been raped, and no one has been prosecuted due to the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA). The Kashmiris feel that they should be heard and a solution found before there is a Nuclear war that impacts everyone on the planet. The Kashmiris do not want more death. Every day civilians are killed on the Line Of COntrol dividing the two side of Kashmir and it divides Kashmiri families. Its a sad state of affairs. RSS the organisation that is behind the BJP also killed Gandhi and now that the BJP has a majority the minorities in India are suffering from their policies. Ghandi did not want sectarian violance in India that RSS promoted and he paid the ultimate price. Since RSS did not even spare their leader, who got them independence, how will they spare the minorities.

  30. Due to the constant shelling accross the line of control, every one in
    Azad Kashmir wants to shoot indian troops, like they shot the indian
    pilot in February. If the Pakistan army did not stop them, they would
    have killed him. Everyone in Pakistan is armed and every town has gun
    shops. The population has over a hundred millions of guns, even the
    Pakistani army is scared of them. They make guns at home. On January 27,
    2011 Raymond Allen Davis a former United States, Special Forces Army
    soldier, private security firm employee, and contractor with the Central
    Intelligence Agency (CIA) killed two people in Lahore, so the shop
    keeps pulled out their AK47s and arrested him. Additionaly there are
    over a million people in the UK from Azad Kashmir and they have more
    money than the Government Of Pakistan. Their grandfathers were in the
    British army and Navy. They were always armed and defeated Harri Singsh
    forces. Just look at cities like Mirpur in Azad Kashmir. Mirpur even has
    a British embassy. They are extremely wealthy and the people hate the
    Indian Government. Just look at the demos infront of Indian embassies in
    the UK. Everyone hates the indian government including the Sikhs,
    people in Naga land, Assam, south indian and else where in Indian.
    google khalistan 2020. The Kashmiri people never liked Harri Singh whose
    grandfather Maharaja Gulab Singh Jamwal, who was originally with the
    Sikh Empire switched sides during the First Anglo-Sikh War and was given
    Kashmir By the East India Company. The Treaty of Amritsar (1846)
    formalised the sale by the East India Company to Gulab Singh for
    7,500,000 Nanakshahee Rupees of all the lands in Kashmir that were ceded
    to them by the Sikhs by the Treaty of Lahore. The Kashmiri public was
    heavily taxed to pay this money and continuously rebelled against the
    Maharaja Gulab Singh and Harri Singh. Mirpur was the centre of
    rebellion. (This could also be found in the census of Indian 1910 in the
    British Library in Euston.) People in Azad Kashmir speak Punjabi and
    other languages and hate India, are heavily armed and dangerous.

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