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Monarchy of Canada | Wikipedia audio article

September 24, 2019


The monarchy of Canada is at the core of both
Canada’s federal structure and Westminster-style of parliamentary and constitutional democracy.
The monarchy is the foundation of the executive (Queen-in-Council), legislative (Queen-in-Parliament),
and judicial (Queen-on-the-Bench) branches within both federal and provincial jurisdictions.
The sovereign is the personification of the Canadian state and is Queen of Canada as a
matter of constitutional law. The current Canadian monarch and head of state is Queen
Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952. Elizabeth’s eldest son, Prince Charles,
is heir apparent. Although the person of the sovereign is equally
shared with 15 other independent countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, each country’s
monarchy is separate and legally distinct. As a result, the current monarch is officially
titled Queen of Canada and, in this capacity, she, her consort, and other members of the
Canadian Royal Family undertake public and private functions domestically and abroad
as representatives of Canada. However, the Queen is the only member of the Royal Family
with any constitutional role. While some powers are exercisable only by the sovereign (such
as appointing governors general), most of the monarch’s operational and ceremonial duties
(such as summoning the House of Commons and accrediting ambassadors) are exercised by
his or her representative, the Governor General of Canada. In Canada’s provinces, the monarch
in right of each is represented by a lieutenant governor. As territories fall under the federal
jurisdiction, they each have a commissioner, rather than a lieutenant governor, who represents
the federal Crown-in-Council directly.As all executive authority is vested in the sovereign,
their assent is required to allow for bills to become law and for letters patent and orders
in council to have legal effect. While the power for these acts stems from the Canadian
people through the constitutional conventions of democracy, executive authority remains
vested in the Crown and is only entrusted by the sovereign to their government on behalf
of the people, underlining the Crown’s role in safeguarding the rights, freedoms, and
democratic system of government of Canadians, and reinforcing the fact that “governments
are the servants of the people and not the reverse”. Thus, within a constitutional monarchy
the sovereign’s direct participation in any of these areas of governance is limited, with
the sovereign normally exercising executive authority only on the advice of the executive
committee of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada, with the sovereign’s legislative and
judicial responsibilities largely carried out through parliamentarians as well as judges
and justices of the peace. The Crown today primarily functions as a guarantor of continuous
and stable governance and a nonpartisan safeguard against abuse of power, the sovereign acting
as a custodian of the Crown’s democratic powers and a representation of the “power of the
people above government and political parties”.Canada is one of the oldest continuing monarchies
in the world. Initially established in the 16th century, monarchy in Canada has evolved
through a continuous succession of French and British sovereigns into the independent
Canadian sovereigns of today, whose institution is sometimes colloquially referred to as the
Maple Crown.==International and domestic aspects==The person who is the Canadian sovereign is
equally shared with 15 other monarchies (a grouping, including Canada, known informally
as the Commonwealth realms) in the 52-member Commonwealth of Nations, with the monarch
residing predominantly in the oldest and most populous realm, the United Kingdom, and viceroys
(the Governor General of Canada in the federal sphere and a lieutenant governor in each province)
acting as the sovereign’s representatives in Canada. The emergence of this arrangement
paralleled the fruition of Canadian nationalism following the end of the First World War and
culminated in the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931. Since then, the pan-national
Crown has had both a shared and a separate character and the sovereign’s role as monarch
of Canada has been distinct to his or her position as monarch of any other realm, including
the United Kingdom. Only Canadian federal ministers of the Crown may advise the sovereign
on all matters of the Canadian state, of which the sovereign, when not in Canada, is kept
abreast by weekly communications with the federal viceroy. The monarchy thus ceased
to be an exclusively British institution and in Canada became a Canadian, or “domesticated”,
establishment, though it is still often denoted as “British” in both legal and common language,
for reasons historical, political, and of convenience.
This division is illustrated in a number of ways: The sovereign, for example, holds a
unique Canadian title and, when she and other members of the Royal Family are acting in
public specifically as representatives of Canada, they use, where possible, Canadian
symbols, including the country’s national flag, unique royal symbols, armed forces uniforms,
and the like, as well as Canadian Forces aircraft or other Canadian-owned vehicles for travel.
Once in Canadian airspace, or arrived at a Canadian event taking place abroad, the Canadian
Secretary to the Queen, officers of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and other Canadian
officials will take over from whichever of their other realms’ counterparts were previously
escorting the Queen or other member of the Royal Family.The sovereign similarly only
draws from Canadian funds for support in the performance of her duties when in Canada or
acting as Queen of Canada abroad; Canadians do not pay any money to the Queen or any other
member of the Royal Family, either towards personal income or to support royal residences
outside of Canada.===Succession and regency===As in the other Commonwealth realms, the current
heir apparent to the throne is Prince Charles, with the next four in the line of succession
being the Prince’s eldest son, Prince William, followed by William’s three children Prince
George, Princess Charlotte, and Prince Louis. Upon a demise of the Crown (the death or abdication
of a sovereign), the late sovereign’s heir immediately and automatically succeeds, without
any need for confirmation or further ceremony; hence arises the phrase “The King is dead.
Long live the King”. It is customary for the accession of the new monarch to be publicly
proclaimed by the governor general on behalf of the Privy Council, which meets at Rideau
Hall after the accession. An appropriate period of mourning also follows, during which portraits
of the recently deceased monarch are draped with black fabric and staff at government
houses wear customary black armbands. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation keeps a
regularly updated plan for a “broadcast of national importance” announcing the demise
of a sovereign and covering the aftermath, during which all regular programming and advertising
is cancelled and on-call commentators contribute to a 24-hour news mode. The day of the funeral
is likely to be a public holiday.The new monarch is crowned in the United Kingdom in an ancient
ritual, but one not necessary for a sovereign to reign. By the Interpretation Act of 2005,
no incumbent appointee of the Crown is affected by the death of the monarch, nor are they
required to take the Oath of Allegiance again, and all references in legislation to previous
monarchs, whether in the masculine (e.g. His Majesty) or feminine (e.g. the Queen), continue
to mean the reigning sovereign of Canada, regardless of his or her gender. This is because,
in common law, the Crown never dies. After an individual ascends the throne, he or she
usually continues to reign until death. The relationship between the Commonwealth
realms is such that any change to the rules of succession to their respective crowns requires
the unanimous consent of all the realms. Succession is governed by statutes, such as the Bill
of Rights 1689, the Act of Settlement 1701, and the Acts of Union 1707. In 1936, King
Edward VIII abdicated and any possible future descendants of his were excluded from the
line of succession. As the Statute of Westminster 1931 disallowed the UK from legislating for
Canada, including in relation to succession, Order in Council P.C. 3144 was issued, expressing
the Cabinet’s request and consent for His Majesty’s Declaration of Abdication Act 1936
to become part of the laws of Canada and the Succession to the Throne Act 1937 gave parliamentary
ratification to that action, together bringing the Act of Settlement and Royal Marriages
Act 1772 into Canadian law. The latter was deemed by the Cabinet in 1947 to be part of
Canadian law, as is the Bill of Rights 1689, according to the Supreme Court of Canada.
The Department of External Affairs included all succession-related laws in its list of
acts within Canadian law. In 2011, Canada committed to the Perth Agreement with the
other Commonwealth realms, which proposed changes to the rules governing succession
to remove male preference and removal of disqualification arising from marriage to a Roman Catholic.
As a result of the Perth Agreement, the Canadian parliament passed the Canadian Succession
to the Throne Act, 2013, which gave the country’s assent to the Succession to the Crown Bill
2013, at that time proceeding in the parliament of the United Kingdom.
Certain aspects of the succession rules have been challenged in the courts. For example,
under the provisions of the Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act of Settlement 1701, Catholics
are barred from succeeding to the throne; this prohibition has been upheld twice by
Canadian courts, once in 2003 and again in 2014.Canada has no laws allowing for a regency,
should the sovereign be a minor or debilitated; none have been passed by the Canadian parliament
and it was made clear by successive Cabinets since 1937 that the United Kingdom’s Regency
Act had no applicability to Canada, as the Canadian Cabinet had not requested otherwise
when the act was passed that year and again in 1943 and 1953. As the 1947 Letters Patent
issued by King George VI permit the Governor General of Canada to exercise almost all of
the monarch’s powers in respect of Canada, the viceroy is expected to continue to act
as the personal representative of the monarch, and not any regent, even if the monarch is
a child or incapacitated.==Federal and provincial aspects==Canada’s monarchy was established at Confederation,
when its executive government and authority were declared (in section 9 of the Constitution
Act, 1867) “to continue and be vested in the Queen”. The Canadian monarchy is a federal
one in which the Crown is unitary throughout all jurisdictions in the country, the sovereignty
of the different administrations being passed on through the overreaching Crown itself as
a part of the executive, legislative, and judicial operations in each of the federal
and provincial spheres and the headship of state being a part of all equally. The Crown
thus links the various governments into a federal state, though it is simultaneously
also “divided” into eleven legal jurisdictions, or eleven “crowns”—one federal and ten provincial—with
the monarch taking on a distinct legal persona in each. As such, the constitution instructs
that any change to the position of the monarch or his or her representatives in Canada requires
the consent of the Senate, the House of Commons, and the legislative assemblies of all the
provinces.The governor general is appointed by the Queen on the advice of her federal
prime minister and the lieutenant governors are appointed by the governor general on the
advice of the federal prime minister. The commissioners of Canada’s territories are
appointed by the federal Governor-in-Council, at the recommendation of the Minister of Indian
Affairs and Northern Development; but, as the territories are not sovereign entities,
the commissioners are not personal representatives of the sovereign. The Advisory Committee on
Vice-Regal Appointments, which may seek input from the relevant premier and provincial or
territorial community, proposes candidates for appointment as governor general, lieutenant
governor, and commissioner.==Personification of the Canadian state==As the living embodiment of the Crown, the
sovereign is regarded as the personification of the Canadian state and, as such, must,
along with his or her viceregal representatives, “remain strictly neutral in political terms”.
The body of the reigning sovereign thus holds two distinct personas in constant coexistence:
that of a natural-born human being and that of the state as accorded to him or her through
law; the Crown and the monarch are “conceptually divisible but legally indivisible … [t]he
office cannot exist without the office-holder”, so, even in private, the monarch is always
“on duty”. The terms the state, the Crown, the Crown in Right of Canada, Her Majesty
the Queen in Right of Canada (French: Sa Majesté la Reine du chef du Canada), and similar are
all synonymous and the monarch’s legal personality is sometimes referred to simply as Canada.As
such, the king or queen of Canada is the employer of all government officials and staff (including
the viceroys, judges, members of the Canadian Forces, police officers, and parliamentarians),
the guardian of foster children (Crown wards), as well as the owner of all state lands (Crown
land), buildings and equipment (Crown held property), state owned companies (Crown corporations),
and the copyright for all government publications (Crown copyright). This is all in his or her
position as sovereign, and not as an individual; all such property is held by the Crown in
perpetuity and cannot be sold by the sovereign without the proper advice and consent of his
or her ministers. The monarch is at the apex of the Canadian
order of precedence and, as the embodiment of the state, is also the locus of oaths of
allegiance, required of many of the aforementioned employees of the Crown, as well as by new
citizens, as by the Oath of Citizenship. Allegiance is given in reciprocation to the sovereign’s
Coronation Oath, wherein he or she promises “to govern the Peoples of … Canada … according
to their respective laws and customs”.===Head of state===
Though it has been argued that the term head of state is a republican one inapplicable
in a constitutional monarchy such as Canada, where the monarch is the embodiment of the
state and thus cannot be head of it, the sovereign is regarded by official government sources,
judges, constitutional scholars, and pollsters as the head of state, while the governor general
and lieutenant governors are all only representatives of, and thus equally subordinate to, that
figure. Some governors general, their staff, government publications, and constitutional
scholars like Edward McWhinney and C. E. S. Franks have, however, referred to the position
of governor general as that of Canada’s head of state, though sometimes qualifying the
assertion with de facto or effective; Franks has hence recommended that the governor general
be named officially as the head of state. Still others view the role of head of state
as being shared by both the sovereign and her viceroys. Since 1927, governors general
have been received on state visits abroad as though they were heads of state. Officials at Rideau Hall have attempted to
use the Letters Patent of 1947 as justification for describing the governor general as head
of state. However, the document makes no such distinction, nor does it effect an abdication
of the sovereign’s powers in favour of the viceroy, as it only allows the governor general
to “act on The Queen’s behalf”. Dr. D. Michael Jackson, C.V.O., S.O.M., C.D., former Chief
of Protocol of Saskatchewan, argued that Rideau Hall had been attempting to “recast” the governor
general as head of state since the 1970s and doing so preempted both the Queen and all
of the lieutenant governors. This caused not only “precedence wars” at provincial events
(where the governor general usurped the lieutenant governor’s proper spot as most senior official
in attendance) and Governor General Adrienne Clarkson to accord herself precedence before
the Queen at a national occasion, but also constitutional issues by “unbalancing … the
federalist symmetry”. This has been regarded as both a natural evolution and as a dishonest
effort to alter the constitution without public scrutiny.In a poll conducted by Ipsos-Reid
following the first prorogation of the 40th parliament on 4 December 2008, it was found
that 42% of the sample group thought the prime minister was head of state, while 33% felt
it was the governor general. Only 24% named the Queen as head of state, a number up from
2002, when the results of an EKOS Research Associates survey showed only 5% of those
polled knew the Queen was head of state (69% answered that it was the prime minister).==Federal constitutional role==Canada’s constitution is based on the Westminster
parliamentary model, wherein the role of the Queen is both legal and practical, but not
political. The sovereign is vested with all the powers of state, collectively known as
the Royal Prerogative, leading the populace to be considered subjects of the Crown. However,
as the sovereign’s power stems from the people and the monarch is a constitutional one, he
or she does not rule alone, as in an absolute monarchy. Instead, the Crown is regarded as
a corporation sole, with the monarch being the centre of a construct in which the power
of the whole is shared by multiple institutions of government—the executive, legislative,
and judicial—acting under the sovereign’s authority, which is entrusted for exercise
by the politicians (the elected and appointed parliamentarians and the ministers of the
Crown generally drawn from among them) and the judges and justices of the peace. The
monarchy has thus been described as the underlying principle of Canada’s institutional unity
and the monarch as a “guardian of constitutional freedoms” whose “job is to ensure that the
political process remains intact and is allowed to function.”The Great Seal of Canada “signifies
the power and authority of the Crown flowing from the sovereign to [the] parliamentary
government” and is applied to state documents such as royal proclamations and letters patent
commissioning cabinet ministers, senators, judges, and other senior government officials.
The “lending” of royal authority to the Cabinet is illustrated by the great seal being entrusted
by the governor general, the official keeper of the seal, to the Minister of Innovation,
Science, and Economic Development, who is ex officio the Registrar General of Canada.
Upon a change of government, the seal is temporarily returned to the governor general and then
“lent” to the next incoming registrar general.The Crown is the pinnacle of the Canadian Forces,
with the constitution placing the monarch in the position of commander-in-chief of the
entire force, though the governor general carries out the duties attached to the position
and also bears the title of Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada. Further, included in Canada’s
constitution are the various treaties between the Crown and Canadian First Nations, Inuit,
and Métis peoples, who view these documents as agreements directly and only between themselves
and the reigning monarch, illustrating the relationship between sovereign and aboriginals.===Executive (Queen-in-Council)===The government of Canada—formally termed
Her Majesty’s Government—is defined by the constitution as the Queen acting on the advice
of her Privy Council; what is technically known as the Queen-in-Council, or sometimes
the Governor-in-Council, referring to the governor general as the Queen’s stand-in.
One of the main duties of the Crown is to “ensure that a democratically elected government
is always in place,” which means appointing a prime minister to thereafter head the Cabinet—a
committee of the Privy Council charged with advising the Crown on the exercise of the
Royal Prerogative. The Queen is informed by her viceroy of the swearing-in and resignation
of prime ministers and other members of the ministry, remains fully briefed through regular
communications from her Canadian ministers, and holds audience with them whenever possible.
By convention, the content of these communications and meetings remains confidential so as to
protect the impartiality of the monarch and her representative. The appropriateness and
viability of this tradition in an age of social media has been questioned.In the construct
of constitutional monarchy and responsible government, the ministerial advice tendered
is typically binding, meaning the monarch reigns but does not rule, the Cabinet ruling
“in trust” for the monarch. This has been the case in Canada since the Treaty of Paris
ended the reign of the territory’s last absolute monarch, King Louis XV. However, the Royal
Prerogative belongs to the Crown and not to any of the ministers and the royal and viceroyal
figures may unilaterally use these powers in exceptional constitutional crisis situations
(an exercise of the reserve powers), thereby allowing the monarch to make sure “that the
government conducts itself in compliance with the constitution.” There are also a few duties
which must be specifically performed by, or bills that require assent by, the Queen.The
Royal Prerogative also extends to foreign affairs, including the ratification of treaties,
alliances, international agreements, and declarations of war, the accreditation of Canadian high
commissioners and ambassadors and receipt of similar diplomats from foreign states,
and the issuance of Canadian passports, which remain the sovereign’s property. It also includes
the creation of dynastic and national honours, though only the latter are established on
official ministerial advice.===Parliament (Queen-in-Parliament)===All laws in Canada are the monarch’s and the
sovereign is one of the three components of parliament—formally called the Queen-in-Parliament—but
the monarch and viceroy do not participate in the legislative process save for the granting
of Royal Assent, which is necessary for a bill to be enacted as law. Either figure or
a delegate may perform this task and the constitution allows the viceroy the option of deferring
assent to the sovereign. The governor general is further responsible for summoning the House
of Commons, while either the viceroy or monarch can prorogue and dissolve the legislature,
after which the governor general usually calls for a general election. The new parliamentary
session is marked by either the monarch, governor general, or some other representative reading
the Speech from the Throne. Members of Parliament must recite the Oath of Allegiance before
they may take their seat. Further, the official opposition is traditionally dubbed as Her
Majesty’s Loyal Opposition, illustrating that, while its members are opposed to the incumbent
government, they remain loyal to the sovereign (as personification of the state and its authority).The
monarch does not have the prerogative to impose and collect new taxes without the authorization
of an Act of Parliament. The consent of the Crown must, however, be obtained before either
of the houses of parliament may even debate a bill affecting the sovereign’s prerogatives
or interests and no act of parliament binds the Queen or her rights unless the act states
that it does.===Courts (Queen-on-the-Bench)===The sovereign is responsible for rendering
justice for all her subjects and is thus traditionally deemed the fount of justice and her position
in the Canadian courts formally dubbed the Queen on the Bench. The Arms of Her Majesty
in Right of Canada are traditionally displayed in Canadian courtrooms, as is a portrait of
the sovereign.The monarch does not personally rule in judicial cases; this function of the
royal prerogative is instead performed in trust and in the Queen’s name by officers
of Her Majesty’s court. Common law holds the notion that the sovereign “can do no wrong”:
the monarch cannot be prosecuted in her own courts—judged by herself—for criminal
offences. Civil lawsuits against the Crown in its public capacity (that is, lawsuits
against the Queen-in-Council) are permitted, but lawsuits against the monarch personally
are not cognizable. In international cases, as a sovereign and under established principles
of international law, the Queen of Canada is not subject to suit in foreign courts without
her express consent. Within the royal prerogative is also the granting of immunity from prosecution,
mercy, and pardoning offences against the Crown. Since 1878, the prerogative of pardon
has always been exercised upon the recommendation of ministers.==Cultural role=====
Royal presence and duties===Members of the Royal Family have been present
in Canada since the late 18th century, their reasons including participating in military
manoeuvres, serving as the federal viceroy, or undertaking official royal tours. A prominent
feature of the latter are numerous royal walkabouts, the tradition of which was initiated in 1939
by Queen Elizabeth when she was in Ottawa and broke from the royal party to speak directly
to gathered veterans. Usually important milestones, anniversaries, or celebrations of Canadian
culture will warrant the presence of the monarch, while other royals will be asked to participate
in lesser occasions. A household to assist and tend to the monarch forms part of the
royal party. Official duties involve the sovereign representing
the Canadian state at home or abroad, or her relations as members of the Royal Family participating
in government organized ceremonies either in Canada or elsewhere; sometimes these individuals
are employed in asserting Canada’s sovereignty over its territories. The advice of the Canadian
Cabinet is the impetus for royal participation in any Canadian event, though, at present,
the Chief of Protocol and his staff in the Department of Canadian Heritage are, as part
of the State Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Program, responsible for orchestrating any
official events in or for Canada that involve the Royal Family.Conversely, unofficial duties
are performed by Royal Family members on behalf of Canadian organizations of which they may
be patrons, through their attendance at charity events, visiting with members of the Canadian
Forces as colonel-in-chief, or marking certain key anniversaries. The invitation and expenses
associated with these undertakings are usually borne by the associated organization. In 2005
members of the Royal Family were present at a total of 76 Canadian engagements, as well
as several more through 2006 and 2007.Apart from Canada, the Queen and other members of
the Royal Family regularly perform public duties in the other fifteen nations of the
Commonwealth in which the Queen is head of state. This situation, however, can mean the
monarch and/or members of the Royal Family will be promoting one nation and not another;
a situation that has been met with criticism.===Symbols, associations, and awards===The main symbol of the monarchy is the sovereign
herself, described as “the personal expression of the Crown in Canada,” and her image is
thus used to signify Canadian sovereignty and government authority—her image, for
instance, appearing on currency, and her portrait in government buildings. The sovereign is
further both mentioned in and the subject of songs, loyal toasts, and salutes. A royal
cypher, appearing on buildings and official seals, or a crown, seen on provincial and
national coats of arms, as well as police force and Canadian Forces regimental and maritime
badges and rank insignia, is also used to illustrate the monarchy as the locus of authority,
the latter without referring to any specific monarch. Since the days of King Louis XIV, the monarch
is the fount of all honours in Canada and the orders, decorations, and medals form “an
integral element of the Crown.” Hence, the insignia and medallions for these awards bear
a crown, cypher, and/or portrait of the monarch. Similarly, the country’s heraldic authority
was created by the Queen and, operating under the authority of the governor general, grants
new coats of arms, flags, and badges in Canada. Use of the royal crown in such symbols is
a gift from the monarch showing royal support and/or association, and requires her approval
before being added.Members of the Royal Family also act as ceremonial colonels-in-chief,
commodores-in-chief, captains-general, air commodores-in-chief, generals, and admirals
of various elements of the Canadian Forces, reflecting the Crown’s relationship with the
country’s military through participation in events both at home and abroad. The monarch
also serves as the Commissioner-in-Chief, Prince Charles as Honorary Commissioner, and
Prince Edward as Honorary Deputy Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.A number
of Canadian civilian organizations have association with the monarchy, either through their being
founded via a royal charter, having been granted the right to use the prefix royal before their
name, or because at least one member of the Royal Family serves as a patron. In addition
to The Prince’s Charities Canada, established by Charles, Prince of Wales, some other charities
and volunteer organizations have also been founded as gifts to, or in honour of, some
of Canada’s monarchs or members of the Royal Family, such as the Victorian Order of Nurses
(a gift to Queen Victoria for her Diamond Jubilee in 1897), the Canadian Cancer Fund
(set up in honour of King George V’s Silver Jubilee in 1935), and the Queen Elizabeth
II Fund to Aid in Research on the Diseases of Children. A number of awards in Canada
are likewise issued in the name of previous or present members of the Royal Family. Further,
organizations will give commemorative gifts to members of the Royal Family to mark a visit
or other important occasion.==Canada’s royal family and house==The Canadian Royal Family (French: Famille
Royale Canadienne) is a group of people related to the country’s monarch and, as such, belonging
to the House of Windsor (French: Maison de Windsor). There is no legal definition of
who is or is not a member of the group, though the Government of Canada maintains a list
of immediate members, and stipulates that those in the direct line of succession who
bear the style of Royal Highness (Altesse Royale) are subjects of, and owe their allegiance
specifically to, the reigning king or queen of Canada.The family members are distantly
descended from, among others, Arab, Armenian, Cuman, French, German, Hungarian, Italian,
Mongolian, Portuguese, and Serbian ethnicities. Moreover, they are distant relations of the
Belgian, Danish, Greek, Norwegian, Spanish, and Swedish royal families and, given the
shared nature of the Canadian monarch, most are also of members of the British Royal Family.
However, because Canada and the UK are independent of one another, it is incorrect to refer in
the Canadian context to the family of the monarch as the “British Royal Family”—as
is frequently done by Canadian and other media—and there exist some differences between the official
lists of each. Further, in addition to the five Canadian citizens in the Royal Family,
the sovereign and those among her relations who do not meet the requirements of Canadian
citizenship law are considered Canadian, which entitles them to Canadian consular assistance
and the protection of the Queen’s armed forces of Canada when they are in need of protection
or aid outside of the Commonwealth realms, as well as to substantive appointment to Canadian
orders or receipt of Canadian decorations. Beyond legalities, members of the Royal Family
have, on occasion, been said by the media and non-governmental organisations to be Canadian,
have declared themselves to be Canadian, and some past members have lived in Canada for
extended periods as viceroy or for other reasons. Unlike in the United Kingdom, the monarch
is the only member of the Royal Family with a title established through Canadian law.
It would be possible for others to be granted distinctly Canadian titles (as is the case
for the Duke of Rothesay (Prince Charles) in Scotland), but they have always been, and
continue to only be, accorded the use of a courtesy title in Canada, which is that which
they have been granted via letters patent in the UK, though they are also in Canada
translated to French.According to the Canadian Royal Heritage Trust, Prince Edward Augustus,
Duke of Kent and Strathearn—due to his having lived in Canada between 1791 and 1800, and
fathering Queen Victoria—is the “ancestor of the modern Canadian Royal Family”. Nonetheless,
the concept of the Canadian Royal Family did not emerge until after the passage of the
Statute of Westminster in 1931, when Canadian officials only began to overtly consider putting
the principles of Canada’s new status as an independent kingdom into effect. At first,
the monarch was the only member of the Royal Family to carry out public ceremonial duties
solely on the advice of Canadian ministers; King Edward VIII became the first to do so
when in July 1936 he dedicated the Canadian National Vimy Memorial in France. Over the
decades, however, the monarch’s children, grandchildren, cousins, and their respective
spouses began to also perform functions at the direction of the Canadian Crown-in-Council,
representing the monarch within Canada or abroad. But it was not until October 2002
when the term Canadian Royal Family was first used publicly and officially by one of its
members: in a speech to the Nunavut legislature at its opening, Queen Elizabeth II stated:
“I am proud to be the first member of the Canadian Royal Family to be greeted in Canada’s
newest territory.” Princess Anne used it again when speaking at Rideau Hall in 2014. By 2011,
both Canadian and British media were referring to “Canada’s royal family” or the “Canadian
royal family”.The press frequently follows the movements of the Royal Family, and can,
at times, affect the group’s popularity, which has fluctuated over the years. Mirroring the
mood in the United Kingdom, the family’s lowest approval was during the mid-1980s to 1990s,
when the children of the monarch were enduring their divorces and were the targets of negative
tabloid reporting.==Federal residences and royal household
==A number of buildings across Canada are reserved
by the Crown for the use of the monarch and her viceroys. Each is called Government House,
but may be customarily known by some specific name. The sovereign’s and governor general’s
official residences are Rideau Hall in Ottawa and the Citadelle in Quebec City. Each of
these royal seats holds pieces from the Crown Collection. Further, though neither was ever
used for their intended purpose, Hatley Castle in British Columbia was purchased in 1940
by King George VI in Right of Canada to use as his home during the course of World War
II, and the Emergency Government Headquarters, built in 1959 at CFS Carp and decommissioned
in 1994, included a residential apartment for the sovereign or governor general in the
case of a nuclear attack on Ottawa.Monarchs and members of their family have also owned
in a private capacity homes and land in Canada: King Edward VIII owned Bedingfield Ranch,
near Pekisko, Alberta; the Marquess of Lorne and Princess Louise owned a cottage on the
Cascapédia River in Quebec; and Princess Margaret owned Portland Island between its
gifting to her by the Crown in Right of British Columbia in 1958 and her death in 2002, though
she offered it back to the Crown on permanent loan in 1966 and the island and surrounding
waters eventually became Princess Margaret Marine Park. To assist the Queen in carrying out her official
duties on behalf of Canada, she appoints various people to her Canadian household. Along with
the Canadian Secretary to the Queen, the monarch’s entourage includes two ladies-in-waiting,
the Canadian Equerry-in-Waiting to the Queen, the Queen’s Police Officer, the Duke of Edinburgh’s
Police Officer, the Queen’s Honorary Physician, the Queen’s Honorary Dental Surgeon, and the
Queen’s Honorary Nursing Officer—the latter three being drawn from the Canadian Forces.
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, also has a Canadian private secretary and his wife, Sophie,
Countess of Wessex, a lady-in-waiting. Air transportation for the Royal Family is provided
by the Royal Canadian Air Force 412 Transport Squadron.
There are three household regiments specifically attached to the Royal Household—the Governor
General’s Foot Guards, the Governor General’s Horse Guards, and the Canadian Grenadier Guards.
There are also two chapels royal in Ontario. Though not officially a royal chapel, St.
Bartholomew’s Anglican Church, located across MacKay Street from Rideau Hall, is regularly
used by governors general and their families and sometimes by the sovereign and other members
of the Royal Family, as well as by viceregal household staff, their families, and members
of the Governor General’s Foot Guards, for whom the church also serves as a regimental
chapel.==History==The Canadian monarchy can trace its ancestral
lineage back to the kings of the Angles and the early Scottish kings and through the centuries
since the claims of King Henry VII in 1497 and King Francis I in 1534; both being blood
relatives of the current Canadian monarch. Former Prime Minister Stephen Harper said
of the Crown that it “links us all together with the majestic past that takes us back
to the Tudors, the Plantagenets, the Magna Carta, habeas corpus, petition of rights,
and English common law.” Though the first French and British colonizers of Canada interpreted
the hereditary nature of some indigenous North American chieftainships as a form of monarchy,
it is generally accepted that Canada has been a territory of a monarch or a monarchy in
its own right only since the establishment of colony of Canada in the early 16th century;
according to historian Jacques Monet, the Canadian Crown is one of the few that have
survived through uninterrupted succession since before its inception. After the Canadian colonies of France were,
via war and treaties, ceded to the British Crown, and the population was greatly expanded
by those loyal to George III fleeing north from persecution during and following the
American Revolution, British North America was in 1867 confederated by Queen Victoria
to form Canada as a kingdom in its own right. By the end of the First World War, the increased
fortitude of Canadian nationalism inspired the country’s leaders to push for greater
independence from the King in his British Council, resulting in the creation of the
uniquely Canadian monarchy through the Statute of Westminster, which was granted Royal Assent
in 1931. Only five years later, Canada had three successive kings in the space of one
year, with the death of George V, the accession and abdication of Edward VIII, and his replacement
by George VI. The latter became in 1939 the first reigning
monarch of Canada to tour the country (though previous kings had done so before their accession).
As the ease of travel increased, visits by the sovereign and other Royal Family members
became more frequent and involved, seeing Queen Elizabeth II officiate at various moments
of importance in the nation’s history, one being when she proclaimed the country to be
fully independent, via constitutional patriation, in 1982. That act is said to have entrenched
the monarchy in Canada, due to the stringent requirements, as laid out in the amending
formula, that must be met in order to alter the monarchy in any way.Through the 1960s
and 1970s, the rise of Quebec nationalism and changes in Canadian identity created an
atmosphere where the purpose and role of the monarchy came into question. Some references
to the monarch and the monarchy were removed from the public eye and moves were made by
the federal government to constitutionally alter the Crown’s place and role in Canada,
first by explicit legal amendments and later by subtle attrition impelled by elements of
the public service, the Cabinet, and governors general and their staff alike. But, provincial
and federal ministers, along with loyal national citizen’s organizations, ensured that the
system remained the same in essence. By 2002, the royal tour and associated fêtes for the
Queen’s Golden Jubilee proved popular with Canadians across the country, though Canada’s
first republican organization since the 1830s was also founded that year. Celebrations took
place to mark Queen Elizabeth II’s Diamond Jubilee in 2012, the first such event in Canada
since that for Victoria in 1897. On 9 September 2015, she became the second-longest reigning
monarch in Canadian history (preceded only by King Louis XIV); events were organised
to celebrate her as the “longest-reigning sovereign in Canada’s modern era.”==Public understanding==Commentators have in the late 20th and early
21st centuries stated that contemporary Canadians had and have a poor understanding of the Canadian
monarchy, Michael D. Jackson saying in his book The Crown and Canadian Federalism that
this is part of a wider ignorance about Canadian civics. While David Smith researched for his
1995 book The Invisible Crown, he found it difficult to “find anyone who could talk knowledgeably
about the subject”. Former Governor General Adrienne Clarkson said there is “an abysmal
lack of knowledge about the system” and Senator Lowell Murray wrote in 2003: “The Crown has
become irrelevant to most Canadians’ understanding of our system of Government”, which he attributed
to the “fault of successive generations of politicians, of an educational system that
has never given the institution due study, and of past viceregal incumbents themselves”.
These comments were echoed by teacher and author Nathan Tidridge, who asserted that,
beginning in the 1960s, the role of the Crown disappeared from provincial education curricula,
as the general subject of civics came to receive less attention. He said Canadians are being
“educated to be illiterate, ambivalent, or even hostile toward our constitutional monarchy”.
Michael Valpy also pointed to the fact that “The crown’s role in the machinery of Canada’s
constitutional monarchy rarely sees daylight. Only a handful of times in our history has
it been subjected to glaring sunshine, unfortunately resulting in a black hole of public understanding
as to how it works.” He later iterated: “the public’s attention span on the constitutional
intricacies of the monarchy is clinically short”.John Pepall argued in 1990 that a “Liberal-inspired
republican misconception of the role” of governor general had taken root, though the Conservative
government headed by Brian Mulroney exacerbated the matter. The position of prime minister
has simultaneously undergone, with encouragement from its occupants, what has been described
as a “presidentialisation”, to the point that its incumbents publicly outshine the actual
head of state. Additionally, it has been theorised the monarchy is so prevalent in Canada—by
way of all manner of symbols, place names, royal tours, etc.—that Canadians fail to
take note of it; the monarchy “functions like a tasteful wallpaper pattern in Canada: enjoyable
in an absent-minded way, but so ubiquitous as to be almost invisible”. David S. Donovan
felt that Canadians mostly considered the monarch and her representatives as purely
ceremonial and symbolic figures. It was argued by Alfred Neitsch that this undermined the
Crown’s legitimacy as a check and balance in the governmental system, a situation Helen
Forsey (daughter of Canadian constitutional expert Eugene Forsey) said prime ministers
take advantage of, portraying themselves as the embodiment of popular democracy and the
reserve powers of the Crown as illegitimate.In the 2010s, a “growing interest in the Crown
and its prerogatives” was observed, as evidenced by “a burst of articles, books and conferences”.
This was attributed to the coincidental occurrence of publicly prominent events over a number
of years, including the 2008 prorogation dispute; an increased use of royal symbols as directed
by the Cabinet while headed by Stephen Harper, including two consecutive royal tours; court
cases focusing on the Oath of Citizenship; and increasingly active governors. Smith and
Philippe Lagassé noted in early 2016 that post-secondary students were giving more focus
to the subject of the Crown.==Debate==
To date, outside of academic circles, there has been little national debate on the Canadian
monarchy, a subject about which most Canadians are generally unaware. Out of Canada’s three
most prominent political parties, neither the Liberal Party nor the Conservative Party
is officially in favour of abolishing the monarchy (though the latter makes support
for constitutional monarchy a founding principle in its policy declaration) and the New Democratic
Party (NDP) has no official position on the role of the Crown. Only some Members of Parliament
belonging to these parties and the leaders of the Bloc Québécois have made any statements
suggesting abolition of the monarchy. Canada has two special-interest groups representing
the debate, who frequently argue the issue in the media: the Monarchist League of Canada
and Citizens for a Canadian Republic. There are also other organizations that support
and advocate the monarchy, such as the United Empire Loyalists’ Association of Canada, the
Canadian Royal Heritage Trust, the Orange Order in Canada, the Friends of the Canadian
Crown, and Canadian Friends of the Royal Family.The idea of a uniquely Canadian monarch, either
one descended from the House of Windsor or coming from a First Nations royal house, has
been proffered as an alternative. However, there has been no popular or official support
for such a change.==See also==Current Commonwealth realms
States headed by Elizabeth II Monarchies in the Americas
List of Canadian monarchs List of monarchies==Notes====Citations====References====Further information=====Reading===
Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Gary (1991). Royal Observations: Canadians and Royalty. Hamilton:
Dundurn Press. ISBN 1-55002-076-5. Canadian Press (2002). Queen Elizabeth II
and the Royal Family in Canada (Golden Jubilee). Toronto: Quarry Heritage. ISBN 1-55082-301-9.
Coates, Colin (2006). Majesty In Canada: Essays On The Role of Royalty. Hamilton: Dundurn
Press. ISBN 1-55002-586-4. Farthing, John (1957), Robinson, Judith, ed.,
Freedom Wears a Crown (First ed.), Toronto: Kingswood House, ASIN B002CZW3T2
MacKinnon, Frank (1976). The Crown in Canada. Calgary, Alta.: Glenbow-Alberta Institute:
McClelland and Stewart West. 189 p. ISBN 0-7712-1016-7 pbk
Monet, Jacques (1979). The Canadian Crown. Toronto-Vancouver: Clarke, Irwin & Company
Ltd. ISBN 0-7720-1252-0. Munro, Kenneth (1977). Coates, Colin, ed.
“The Crown and French Canada: The role of the Governors-General in Making the Crown
relevant, 1867–1917”. Imperial Canada. The University of Edinburgh: 109–121.
Munro, Kenneth (March 2001). “Canada as Reflected in her Participation in the Coronation of
her Monarchs in the Twentieth Century”. Journal of Historical Sociology. 14: 21–46. doi:10.1111/1467-6443.00133.
Smith, David E. (1999). The Republican Option in Canada: Past and Present. Toronto-Buffalo-London:
University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-4469-7. Tasko, Patti (2007). Canada’s Queen: Elizabeth
II: A Celebration of Her Majestys Friendship with the People of Canada. Toronto: John Wiley
& Sons. ISBN 0-470-15444-6. Tidridge, Nathan; Guthrie, Gavin (2007). The
Canadian Monarchy: Exploring the role of Canada’s Crown in the day-to-day life of our country.
Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada. ISBN 0-9781853-0-7.
Vaughan, Frederick (2004). Canadian Federalist Experiment: From Defiant Monarchy to Reluctant
Republic. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. ISBN 0-7735-2537-8.===Viewing===
Howe, John (1957). The Sceptre and the Mace (Film). Ottawa: National
Film Board.==External links==
Monarchy and the Crown, from the Government of Canada
Canada, from the Royal Household Canada: A Constitutional Monarchy, from the
Senate of Canada Royal Family, from the National Film Board
of Canada

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