Monarchy of New Zealand | Wikipedia audio article

September 20, 2019

The monarchy of New Zealand is the constitutional
system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state
of New Zealand. The current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended
the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. All executive authority is vested in the monarch
and her assent is required for parliament to enact laws and for letters patent and Orders
in Council to have legal effect. However, the authority for these acts stems
from the New Zealand populace and, within the conventional stipulations of constitutional
monarchy, the sovereign’s direct participation in any of these areas of governance is limited. Most of the related powers are exercised by
the elected parliamentarians, the ministers of the Crown generally drawn from amongst
them, and the judges and justices of the peace. Other powers vested in the monarch, such as
the appointment of a prime minister, are significant, but are treated only as reserve powers and
as an important security part of the role of the monarchy. The New Zealand monarchy has its roots in
the British Crown, from which it has evolved to become a distinctly New Zealand institution,
represented by unique symbols. New Zealand’s monarch is today shared equally
with 15 other countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, all being independent and the
monarchy of each legally distinct. As a result, the current monarch is officially
titled Queen of New Zealand (Māori: Kuini o Aotearoa) and, in this capacity, she, her
consort, and other members of the Royal Family undertake various public and private functions
across New Zealand and on behalf of the country abroad. However, the Queen is the only member of the
Royal Family with any constitutional role. While several powers are the sovereign’s alone,
because she lives predominantly in the United Kingdom, most of the royal constitutional
and ceremonial duties in the Realm of New Zealand are typically carried out by the Queen’s
viceregal representative, the governor-general. The role of the monarchy in New Zealand is
a recurring topic of public discussion.==International and domestic aspects==The person who is the New Zealand sovereign
is equally shared with 15 other monarchies (a grouping, including New Zealand, known
informally as the Commonwealth realms) in the 52-member Commonwealth of Nations. The emergence of this arrangement paralleled
the evolution of New Zealand nationalism following the end of the First World War and culminated
in the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, since when the pan-national Crown
has had both a shared and separate character, and the sovereign’s role as monarch of New
Zealand has been distinct to his or her position as monarch of the United Kingdom. The monarchy thus ceased to be an exclusively
British institution, and in New Zealand became a New Zealand establishment, though it is
still often misnomered as “British” in both legal and common language, for reasons historical,
political and of convenience; this conflicts with not only the Government’s recognition
and promotion of a distinctly New Zealand Crown, but also the sovereign’s distinct New
Zealand title. Effective with the Constitution Act 1986,
no British or other realm government can advise the sovereign on any matters pertinent to
New Zealand, meaning that on all matters of the New Zealand state, the monarch is advised
solely by New Zealand ministers of the Crown. As the monarch normally resides in the United
Kingdom, one of the most important of these state duties carried out on the advice of
the prime minister is the appointment of a governor-general, who performs most of the
Queen’s domestic duties in her absence. All royal powers in New Zealand may be carried
out by both the monarch and governor-general and, in New Zealand law, the offices of monarch
and governor-general are fully interchangeable, mention of one always simultaneously including
the other.===Cost===
The sovereign only draws from New Zealand funds for support in the performance of her
duties when in New Zealand or acting as Queen of New Zealand abroad; New Zealanders do not
pay any money to the Queen or any other member of the Royal Family, either towards personal
income or to support royal residences outside of New Zealand. Normally, tax dollars pay only for the costs
associated with the governor-general as instruments of the Queen’s authority, including travel,
security, residences, offices, ceremonies, and the like. Supports of the monarchy argue it costs New
Zealand taxpayers only a small outlay for royal engagements and tours and the expenses
of the governor-general’s establishment. Monarchy New Zealand states “[t]his figure
is about one dollar per person per year”, about $4.3 million per annum. An analysis by New Zealand Republic (a republican
advocacy group) of the 2010 budget claimed the office of governor-general costs New Zealand
taxpayers about $7.6 million in ongoing costs and $11 million for Government House upgrades,
figures Monarchy New Zealand claimed had been “arbitrarily inflated” by New Zealand Republic.===Succession and regency===Succession is, for persons born before 28
October 2011, governed by male-preference cognatic primogeniture and, for those born
after 28 October 2011, by absolute primogeniture—wherein succession passes to an individual’s children
according to birth order, regardless of gender. The succession is governed by the Act of Settlement
1701, Bill of Rights 1689, and Royal Succession Act 2013, legislation that also limits the
succession to the natural (i.e. non-adopted), legitimate descendants of Sophia, Electress
of Hanover, and stipulates that the monarch cannot be a Roman Catholic and must be in
communion with the Church of England upon ascending the throne. Though, via adopting the Statute of Westminster
(later repealed in New Zealand) and the Imperial Laws Application Act 1988, these constitutional
documents as they apply to New Zealand now lie within the full control of the New Zealand
Parliament, New Zealand also agreed not to change its rules of succession without the
unanimous consent of the other realms, unless explicitly leaving the shared monarchy relationship;
a situation that applies symmetrically in all the other realms, including the United
Kingdom, and has been likened to a treaty amongst these countries. Thus, New Zealand’s line of succession remains
identical to that of the United Kingdom. As such, the rules for succession are not
fixed, but may be changed by a constitutional amendment. The Constitution Act 1986 specifies that should
a regent be installed in the United Kingdom, that individual will carry out the functions
of the monarch of New Zealand. Upon a demise of the Crown (the death or abdication
of a sovereign), the late sovereign’s heir immediately and automatically succeeds, without
any need for confirmation or further ceremony—hence arises the phrase “The King is dead. Long live the King!” It is customary, though, for the accession
of the new monarch to be publicly proclaimed by the governor-general on behalf of the Executive
Council of New Zealand. Following an appropriate period of mourning,
the monarch is also crowned in the United Kingdom in an ancient ritual, but one not
necessary for a sovereign to reign. Other than a transfer of all royal powers
and functions to the new monarch from his or her predecessor, no other law or office
is affected, as all references in legislation to previous monarchs, whether in the masculine
(e.g. “His Majesty”) or feminine (e.g. “the Queen”),
continue to mean the reigning sovereign of New Zealand. After an individual ascends the throne, he
or she typically continues to reign until death, being unable to unilaterally abdicate
per the tenets of constitutional monarchy.===Title===One of the first post-Second World War examples
of New Zealand’s status as an independent monarchy was the alteration of the monarch’s
title by the Royal Titles Act 1953. For the first time, the official New Zealand
title mentioned New Zealand separately from the United Kingdom and the other realms, to
highlight the monarch’s role specifically as Queen of New Zealand, as well as the shared
aspect of the Crown throughout the realms; the title at that time was Elizabeth II, by
the Grace of God of the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Her Other Realms and Territories
Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith. Since the passage of the Royal Titles Act
1974, the monarch’s title in New Zealand has been Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of
God Queen of New Zealand and Her Other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth,
Defender of the Faith.Although the Queen’s New Zealand title includes the phrase Defender
of the Faith, neither the Queen nor the governor-general has any religious role in New Zealand; there
has never been an established church in the country. This is one of the key differences from the
Queen’s role in England, where she is Supreme Governor of the Church of England.===Cook Islands, Niue and territories===The sovereign of New Zealand also serves as
monarch to Cook Islands and Niue, territories in free association with New Zealand within
the larger Realm of New Zealand. The New Zealand monarchy, however, is unitary
throughout all jurisdictions in the country, with the headship of state being a part of
all equally. As such, the sovereignty of Cook Islands and
Niue is passed on not by the governor-general or parliament of New Zealand but through the
overreaching Crown itself as part of executive, legislative and judicial operations in all
three areas. The self-government provisions for the Cook
Islands within the Realm of New Zealand allow the Queen to be directly represented as head
of state in Cook Islands affairs by a Queen’s representative, while the governor-general
of New Zealand represents the Queen in matters pertaining to the entire Realm. The governor-general (represented by state
services commissioner) represents the Queen in Niue, carrying out all the monarch’s constitutional
and ceremonial duties of state on her behalf. The administrator of the territory of Tokelau
is appointed by New Zealand’s minister of foreign affairs as a representative of the
New Zealand Government, however, and not for a sovereign state.==Representation of the state==
As the living embodiment of the Crown, the sovereign is regarded as the personification,
or legal personality, of the New Zealand state, with the state therefore referred to as Her
Majesty The Queen in Right of New Zealand, or The Crown. As such, the monarch is the employer of all
government staff (including judges, members of the Defence Force, police officers, and
parliamentarians), as well as the owner of all state lands (Crown land), buildings and
equipment (Crown held property), state-owned companies and agencies (Crown entities), and
the copyright for all government publications (Crown copyright). As the embodiment of the state, the monarch
is the locus of Oaths of Allegiance, required of many employees of the Crown, as well as
by new citizens, as per the Oath of Citizenship laid out in the Citizenship Act. This is done in reciprocation to the sovereign’s
Coronation Oath, wherein he or she promises “to govern the Peoples of… New Zealand… according to their respective
laws and customs.”==
Constitutional role==New Zealand’s constitution is made up of a
variety of statutes and conventions that are either British or New Zealand in origin, and
together give New Zealand a parliamentary system of government wherein the role of the
Queen is both legal and practical. The Crown is regarded as a corporation sole,
with the sovereign, in the position of head of state, as the centre of a construct in
which the power of the whole is shared by multiple institutions of government acting
under the sovereign’s authority.The vast powers that belong to the Crown are collectively
known as the Royal Prerogative, the exercise of which does not require parliamentary approval,
though it is not unlimited; for example, the monarch does not have the prerogative to impose
and collect new taxes without the authorisation of an Act of Parliament. The consent of the Crown must, however, be
obtained before Parliament may even debate a bill affecting the sovereign’s prerogatives
or interests, and no act of parliament binds the Queen or her rights unless the act states
that it does.===Executive===
The Government of New Zealand (formally termed Her Majesty’s Government) is defined by the
constitution as the Queen acting on the advice of her Executive Council. One of the main duties of the Crown is to
ensure that a democratically elected government is always in place, which means appointing
a prime minister to thereafter head the Cabinet—a committee of the Executive Council charged
with advising the Crown on the exercise of the Royal Prerogative, and legally required
to keep the governor-general up to date on state affairs. In the construct of constitutional monarchy
and responsible government, the ministerial advice tendered is typically binding, meaning
the monarch reigns but does not rule. However, the Royal Prerogative belongs to
the Crown and not to any of the ministers, and the royal and viceroyal figures may unilaterally
use these powers in exceptional constitutional crisis situations, thereby allowing the monarch
to make sure that the Government conducts itself in compliance with the constitution. There are also a few duties which must be
specifically performed by, or bills that require assent by, the Queen; these include applying
the royal sign-manual and Seal of New Zealand to the appointment papers of governors-general,
the confirmation of awards of New Zealand Royal Honours, and the approval of any change
in her New Zealand title.====Foreign affairs====
The Royal Prerogative also extends to foreign affairs: the sovereign or the governor-general
conducts treaties, alliances and international agreements on the advice of the Cabinet. The governor-general, on behalf of the Queen,
also accredits New Zealand high commissioners and ambassadors, and receives similar diplomats
from foreign states. In 2005, the Letters of Credence and Recall
were altered so as to run in the name of the incumbent governor-general, instead of following
the usual international process of the letters being from one head of state to another. In addition, the issuance of passports falls
under the Royal Prerogative, and, as such, all New Zealand passports are issued in the
monarch’s name and remain her property.===Parliament===
The sovereign is one of the two components of
the New Zealand Parliament. The monarch and governor-general do not, however,
participate in the legislative process save for the granting of Royal Assent, which is
necessary for a bill to be enacted as law; either figure or a delegate may perform this
task, and the governor-general has the option of deferring assent to the sovereign. The Crown is further responsible for summoning,
proroguing, and dissolving the House of Representatives, after which the governor-general usually calls
for a general election. The new parliamentary session is marked by
either the monarch or the governor-general reading the Speech from the Throne; as the
both are traditionally barred from the House of Representatives, this ceremony, as well
as the bestowing of Royal Assent, takes place in the Legislative Council Chamber; the monarch
has formally opened parliament on five occasions: January 1954, February 1963, March 1970, February
1986, and February 1990. Despite the sovereign’s exclusion, members
of parliament must still express their loyalty to her and defer to her authority, as the
Oath of Allegiance must be recited by all new parliamentarians before they may take
their seat. Further, the official opposition is traditionally
dubbed as Her Majesty’s Loyal Opposition, illustrating that, while its members are opposed
to the incumbent government, they remain loyal to the sovereign (as personification of the
state and its authority).===Courts===
The sovereign is responsible for rendering justice for all her subjects, and is thus
traditionally deemed the fount of justice. However, she does not personally rule in judicial
cases; instead the judicial functions of the Royal Prerogative are performed in trust and
in the Queen’s name by Officers of Her Majesty’s Court. The monarch is immune from criminal prosecution,
the notion in common law being that the sovereign “can do no wrong”; the monarch cannot be prosecuted
in her own courts for criminal offences. Civil lawsuits against the Crown in its public
capacity (that is, lawsuits against the Queen-in-Council) are permitted; however, lawsuits against the
monarch personally are not cognisable. The monarch, and by extension the Governor-General,
also grants immunity from prosecution, exercises the Royal Prerogative of Mercy, and may pardon
offences against the Crown, either before, during, or after a trial.===The Crown and the Defence Force===The Crown also sits at the pinnacle of the
New Zealand Defence Force. The governor-general is commander-in-chief
and under the Defence Act 1990 is authorised to “raise and maintain armed forces”, consisting
of the New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, and Royal New Zealand Air Force. The sovereign’s position as head of the Defence
Force is reflected in New Zealand’s naval vessels bearing the prefix Her Majesty’s New
Zealand Ship (His Majesty’s New Zealand Ship in the reign of a male monarch), and in the
requirement that all members of the armed forces swear their allegiance to the sovereign
and his or her heirs and successors. The governor-general commissions officers
to command the forces. Allegiance [by Defence Force personnel is
to] the Sovereign, [however] loyalty [is] to the Government of the day… The Defence Force and the disposition of those
Forces are at the decision… of Her Majesty’s Ministers for the time being. Though the monarch and members of her family
also act as colonels-in-chief of various regiments in the military, these posts are only ceremonial
in nature, reflecting the Crown’s relationship with the military through participation in
military ceremonies both at home and abroad. The country’s only currently ranked admiral
of the fleet is Prince Philip, the Queen’s consort; this title is held in conjunction
with those of Field Marshal and Marshal of the Royal New Zealand Air Force. Various regiments have also received a royal
prefix, such as the Corps of Royal New Zealand Engineers, the Royal New Zealand Infantry
Regiment, and the Royal New Zealand Army Logistic Regiment.===The Crown and Māori===Māori interaction with the Crown dates back
to 1832, when King William IV of the United Kingdom appointed James Busby as Resident,
to address concerns on the part of Māori in the Bay of Islands over expanding European
settlements in that area. On 28 October 1835, Busby oversaw a hui (forum)
held at Waitangi, at which a flag was selected for New Zealand and a declaration of independence
written by Busby was signed by 36 Māori chiefs; both were acknowledged the following year
by the King in a letter from Lord Glenelg.As a result, the declaration’s ratification by
the British Parliament in 1836, officials in the Colonial Office determined in 1839
that a treaty of cessation would need to be signed with Māori for the British Crown to
acquire sovereignty over New Zealand. The Treaty of Waitangi was signed in 1840
by representatives of the British Crown and over 500 Māori chiefs, and is considered
the founding document of the nation. The Treaty identifies the Crown’s right to
kawanatanga, or “governorship”, leading one Māori academic to argue that kawanatanga,
or Her Majesty’s Government in New Zealand, is party to the treaty.Since the treaty’s
implementation, a number of petitions have been made by Māori directly to the sovereign
in London, whom they felt they had a special relationship, the first coming from northern
chiefs in 1852. This and all subsequent appeals were directed
back to the sovereign’s New Zealand ministers for advice on how to proceed. The results were not always favourable to
Māori, who have communicated their discontent to the monarch or other royals; in response
to a refusal by the Executive Council in 1981 to allow Mana Motuhake direct access to Queen
Elizabeth II, Māori activist Dun Mihaka offered a traditional rebuke by baring his buttocks
at Prince Charles and Diana, Princess of Wales. In a later incident Mihaka attempted to crash
into the Queen’s motorcade; he was intercepted by police before this happened.In the Māori
language, the Queen is sometimes referred to as te kōtuku-rerenga-tahi, meaning “the
white heron of a single flight”; in Māori proverb, the rare white heron is a significant
bird seen only once in a lifetime. In 1953, for her coronation, Queen Elizabeth
II was given a kiwi feather korowai, cloak, which she wears when attending a pōwhiri,
or Māori welcoming ceremony, also speaking partly in Māori.==Cultural role=====
Royal presence and duties===Members of the Royal Family have been present
in New Zealand since the late 1800s, their reasons including participating in military
manoeuvres or undertaking official royal tours. Usually important milestones, anniversaries,
or celebrations of New Zealand culture will warrant the presence of the monarch, while
other royals will be asked to participate in lesser occasions. Official duties involve the sovereign representing
the New Zealand state at home or abroad, or her relations as members of the Royal Family
participating in government organised ceremonies either in New Zealand or elsewhere. The advice of the New Zealand Cabinet is the
impetus for royal participation in any New Zealand event. Such events have included centennials and
bicentennials; Waitangi Day; the openings of Commonwealth and other games; anniversaries
of Māori treaty signings; awards ceremonies; D-Day commemorations; anniversaries of the
monarch’s accession; and the like. Conversely, unofficial duties are performed
by Royal Family members on behalf of New Zealand organisations of which they may be patrons,
through their attendance at charity events, visiting with members of the New Zealand Defence
Force as colonel-in-chief, or marking certain key anniversaries. The invitation and expenses associated with
these undertakings are usually borne by the associated organisation. Since 1869, when Prince Alfred, one of Queen
Victoria’s sons arrived on New Zealand’s shores, dozens of tours of New Zealand by a member
of the Royal Family have taken place, though only five of those occurred before 1953. After Alfred came The Duke and Duchess of
Cornwall and York (later King George V and Queen Mary) in 1901; Prince Edward, Prince
of Wales (later King Edward VIII), in 1920; The Duke and Duchess of York (later King George
VI and Queen Elizabeth) in 1927; and Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, from 1934 to 1935. Queen Elizabeth II was the first reigning
monarch of New Zealand to tour the country, becoming such when she arrived during her
1953–1954 global tour; she broadcast from Government House in Auckland her annual Royal
Christmas Message. Queen Elizabeth also toured New Zealand on
a number of other occasions: between 6 and 18 February 1963, she attended celebrations
at Waitangi and the Queen Elizabeth II Arts Council was founded as the nation’s gift to
the monarch; from 12 to 30 March 1970, the Queen, accompanied by Prince Charles and Princess
Anne, participated in the James Cook bicentenary celebrations; between 30 January and 8 February
1974, and she attended and closed that year’s Commonwealth Games in Christchurch and participated
in New Zealand Day events at Waitangi. As part of a Commonwealth-wide tour for her
Silver Jubilee, Elizabeth was in New Zealand from 22 February to 7 March 1977; she made
a brief visit, between 12 and 20 October 1981, following a Commonwealth Heads of Government
Meeting (CHOGM) in Melbourne; marked the centennial of the New Zealand Police during a tour from
22 February to 2 March 1986; the Queen closed the Commonwealth Games in Auckland and, with
her son, Prince Edward, took part in events marking the sesquicentennial of the Treaty
of Waitangi between 1 and 16 February 1990; between 1 and 10 November 1995, she attended
the CHOGM in Auckland and opened the newly refurbished parliament buildings; and, as
part of her global tour for her Golden Jubilee, Elizabeth was in New Zealand from 22 to 27
February 2002.Some of the royal tours undertaken by more junior members of the Royal Family
include the 1990 visit of Princess Anne to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the Gallipoli
landings on Anzac Day, and when Prince William represented the Queen of New Zealand at VE
and VJ Day commemorations in 2005, as part of an 11-day tour, and opened the new Supreme
Court of New Zealand building in early 2010. Prince Edward spent two terms of the 1982
academic year as a house tutor and junior master at the Wanganui Collegiate School. Apart from New Zealand, the Queen and other
members of the Royal Family regularly perform public duties in the other fifteen other nations
of the Commonwealth in which the Queen is head of state. This situation, however, can mean members
of the Royal Family will be promoting one nation and not another.===Symbols===
References to the monarchy are commonplace in public life in New Zealand and represent
one of the most recognisable ways the head of state is incorporated into New Zealand’s
national identity. Royal symbols may specifically distinguish
institutions that derive their authority from the Crown (such as parliament), establishments
with royal associations, or merely be ways of expressing loyal or patriotic sentiment. The main symbol of the monarchy is the sovereign
herself—her portrait, for instance, currently appears on all coins, the twenty-dollar banknote,
and postage stamps such as the Queen Elizabeth II definitive stamp. There are references to St Edward’s Crown,
on New Zealand’s coat of arms, on various medals, and awards. These latter cases reflect the monarch’s place
as the formal head of the New Zealand Royal Honours System. As such, only she can approve the creation
of an honour, which she does as requested by the New Zealand Government. Though the monarch themselves formally appoints
members to the various orders, the governor-general administers most other responsibilities relating
to New Zealand honours on the sovereign’s behalf (such as investitures). Similar to coats of arms, flags are utilised
to represent royal authority. A personal flag for use by the Queen in New
Zealand was adopted in 1962. It features the shield design of the New Zealand
coat of arms in the form of an oblong or square. Superimposed in the centre is a dark blue
roundel bearing an initial ‘E’ surmounted by a crown, all within a gold chaplet of roses.Music
and song are utilised in various ways as reminders and identifiers of the sovereign. New Zealand inherited the anthem “God Save
the Queen” (or, alternatively, “God Save the King”) from Britain. It remains one of the two national anthems,
along with “God Defend New Zealand”, but has been generally restricted to Anzac Day services
and official occasions where the monarch, a member of the Royal Family, or the governor-general
is being either honoured or in attendance for a particular purpose.In New Zealand, the
Queen’s Official Birthday is a public holiday and is celebrated in the first Monday in June. Celebrations are mainly official, including
the Birthday Honours list and military ceremonies.===Organisations with royal patronage===To receive patronage, an organisation must
prove to be long lasting, and to be of the highest standard in their field. These organisations, such as the Royal New
Zealand Returned and Services’ Association, signified by the prefix royal, have received
patronage from various monarchs and their families. Royal patronage is the royal individual’s
decision to make, though the Ministry for Culture and Heritage will help organisations
to seek patronage.==Debate==Despite a similar level of political involvement
by the monarchy in both countries, there is less agitation for ending the monarchy of
New Zealand and creating a New Zealand republic than in neighbouring Australia, where the
republicanism movement is stronger. Past public opinion polls have shown that
while the majority of Australians are in favour of a republic, New Zealanders on average favour
retaining the monarchy. Supporters of the monarchy claim that for
New Zealand, “…monarchy summarises the inheritance of a thousand years of constitutional government
and our links with a glorious past”.Neither National nor Labour, the two major political
parties currently in parliament, have a stated policy of creating a republic, though some
members of parliament have publicly expressed their personal support for a republic. Some members have also expressed support for
the monarchy. Former Deputy Prime Minister Michael Cullen
declared that he supported the monarchy, stating in 2004 he was “a sort of token monarchist
in the Cabinet these days.” However, in 2010 he repudiated that stance,
taking the view that New Zealand should move towards a republic once the Queen’s reign
ends. In 2008, former Prime Minister John Key, then
Leader of the Opposition, said he is “not convinced [a republic] will be a big issue
in the short term,” but does believe that a republic is “inevitable.” There are two special-interest groups representing
both sides of the debate in New Zealand and arguing the issue in the media from time to
time: Monarchy New Zealand and New Zealand Republic.There are a number of legal issues
to be addressed in order to abolish the monarchy, though individuals on both sides of the argument
take a different view of the level of difficulty faced. Much of the unsurety involves the reserve
powers of the sovereign; the relationship between the various regions of the Realm of
New Zealand sharing the same sovereign (the absence of these matters from republican arguments
having been criticised as a “self-centredness of republican discussions in New Zealand”);
and effects on the relationship between the Crown and Māori, specifically, the continued
legal status of the Treaty of Waitangi and its claims and settlements. Some academics expressed concern that governments
could use republicanism to evade treaty responsibilities, while others, such as Professor Noel Cox,
Chairman-Emeritus of Monarchy New Zealand, have argued a republic would not absolve the
Government of its obligations under the treaty. The institution enjoys the support of most
New Zealanders, particularly those born before the Second World War. With the approval of the current monarch,
and the position of the Treaty of Waitangi under a republic remaining a concern to Māori
and other New Zealanders alike, as well as the question of what constitutional form a
republic might take unresolved, support for a republic remains no higher than one third
to 40% of the population. However, polls indicate that many New Zealanders
see the monarchy as being of little day-to-day relevance; a One News/Colmar Brunton poll
in 2002 found that 58% of the population believed the monarchy has little or no relevance to
their lives. National Business Review poll in 2004 found
57% of respondents believed New Zealand would become a republic “in the future”. On 21 April 2008, New Zealand Republic released
a poll of New Zealanders showing 43% support the monarchy should Prince Charles become
King of New Zealand, and 41% support a republic under the same scenario. A poll by The New Zealand Herald in January
2010, before a visit by Prince William to the country, found 33.3% wanted Prince Charles
to be the next monarch, with 30.2% favouring Prince William. 29.4% of respondents preferred a republic
in the event Queen Elizabeth died or abdicated.On 14 October 2009, a bill put forward in parliament
by Keith Locke to bring about a referendum on the monarchy was drawn from the ballot
of members’ bills and introduced into the legislative chamber. It had been presumed that this bill would
have been binding in New Zealand only, having no effect in the Cook Islands or Niue. On 21 April 2010 the bill was defeated at
its first reading 68–53, and did not continue through to select committee. On the eve of a royal tour by Prince Charles
and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, 10 November 2012, a One News/Colmar Brunton poll reported
70% of people questioned responded they wanted to “keep The Queen as head of state”, while
only 19% supported a republic. Following the tour, a poll by Curia Market
Research commissioned by New Zealand Republic found 51% of respondents wanted Charles as
King once the Queen’s reign ends, while 41% supported a republic.Support for the monarchy
in New Zealand tends to increase during times where there is considerable focus on the Royal
Family, whether this be due to royal tours or significant events such as a royal wedding.==History==Lieutenant James Cook first sailed to New
Zealand in 1769. There he mapped the entire coastline and tentatively
claimed the land for King George III of the United Kingdom. Beginning in 1790, an increasing number of
European settlers came to New Zealand. In 1833, with growing lawlessness amongst
traders and settlers, the British government appointed James Busby as British Resident
to protect British trading interests. Despite Busby’s presence, trouble increased. In 1840, the British government sent Captain
William Hobson to New Zealand as lieutenant governor; he was instructed to negotiate a
voluntary transfer of sovereignty from the Māori to the British Crown. The resultant Treaty of Waitangi was signed
on 6 February 1840, at Waitangi in the Bay of Islands. Following the Treaty, the islands of New Zealand
became a Crown colony and Queen Victoria became the monarch over New Zealand.In the early
19th century, some Māori who visited London were introduced to royalty. The first, Moehanga (or Te Mahanga) met King
George III and Queen Charlotte in 1806. Other rangatira (chiefs) to meet the monarch
include Hongi Hika, who met King George IV in 1820.In 1907, New Zealand achieved the
status of ‘Dominion’, which denoted that it was a country of the British Empire (and later
the Commonwealth of Nations) with autonomy in domestic and foreign affairs. In 1917, letters patent of King George V set
out the powers, duties and responsibilities of the governor-general and the Executive
Council. The governor-general remained an appointee
of the British Crown on the advice of the British Cabinet.The concept of a fully independent
New Zealand sharing the person of the sovereign with the United Kingdom and other countries
only emerged gradually over time through constitutional convention. A series of Imperial Conferences held in London,
from 1917 on, resulted in the Balfour Declaration of 1926, which provided that the United Kingdom
and the Dominions were to considered as “autonomous communities within the British Empire, equal
in status, in no way subordinate to one another in any aspect of their domestic or external
affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown”. The governor-general of New Zealand, as with
all the other governors-general of the empire, became the direct representative of the monarch
in person, rather than a diplomatic channel between the New Zealand and British governments.The
Crown was further separated amongst its Dominions by the Statute of Westminster in 1931, an
act of the British Parliament, which gave New Zealand and other Dominions the authority
to make their own laws in all matters, while requiring them all to seek each other’s assent
for changes to monarchical titles and the common line of succession. The British Parliament specifically gave up
any claim to legislate for a Dominion, save at its own request. New Zealand ratified the Statute in 1947,
after the passing of the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947. A convention persisted that New Zealand prime
ministers consulted the British government on the appointment of governors-general until
1967.===Modern status===
The sovereign did not possess a title unique to New Zealand until the New Zealand Parliament
enacted the Royal Titles Act in 1953, altering the style borne by Queen Elizabeth II and
giving her the title of Queen of the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Her Other Realms
and Territories. Accordingly, the name of the country in official
usage was also changed to the Realm of New Zealand.More recently, the Constitution Act
1986 has become the principal formal statement of New Zealand’s constitution. This act formally establishes that the sovereign
(in Right of New Zealand) is the head of state of New Zealand and that the governor-general
is her representative; each can, in general, exercise all the powers of the other.==List of monarchs==Listed are the Kings and Queens regnant who
have reigned over New Zealand—the British colony of New Zealand, from 1840; followed
by the Dominion of New Zealand, beginning in 1907; and finally the present-day sovereign
state of New Zealand. Originally, these monarchs reigned in their
right as British sovereigns.===Timeline of monarchs=====See also==Māori King Movement
Monarchy of the Cook Islands States headed by Elizabeth II
Monarchies in Oceania List of monarchies
Royal Succession Act 2013 (Bill 99-1 in the New Zealand)==Notes====Citations====References==
Barnett, Hilaire (2017). Constitutional & Administrative Law (12th
ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-315-45836-6. Boyce, Peter John (2008). The Queen’s Other Realms: The Crown and Its
Legacy in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. Sydney: Federation Press. ISBN 978-1-862-87700-9. Retrieved 2 September 2016. Cabinet Office (2017). “Cabinet Manual” (PDF). Wellington: Department of the Prime Minister
and Cabinet. Retrieved 29 June 2017. Cox, Noel (2008). A Constitutional History of the New Zealand
Monarchy: The Evolution of the New Zealand Monarchy and the Recognition of an Autochthonous
Polity. Saarbrücken, Germany: V.D.M. Verlag Dr. Müller Aktiengesellschaft & Co.
K.G. ISBN 978-3-639-00877-7. Shore, Cris; Kawharu, Margaret (17 June 2014). “The Crown in Right of New Zealand: Anthropological
Perspectives on an Imagined Sovereign”. Sites: a journal of social anthropology and
cultural studies. 11 (1): 17–37. doi:10.11157/sites-vol11iss1id267. ISSN 1179-0237. Retrieved 28 June 2017.==Further reading==
Ashley, Mike (1999). The mammoth book of British kings and queens. London: Robinson Publishers. ISBN 1-84119-096-9. Gimpel, Diane Marczely (2011). Monarchies. Edina, Minn.: ABDO Pub. Co. ISBN 978-1-617-58950-8. Mulgan, Richard (2004). Politics in New Zealand (3rd ed.). Auckland: Auckland University Press. ISBN 978-1-869-40318-8. Quentin-Baxter, Alison; McLean, Janet (2017). This Realm of New Zealand: The Sovereign,
the Governor-General, the Crown. Auckland University Press. ISBN 978-1-869-40875-6.==External links==
New Zealand press releases at The Royal Household website
Monarchy New Zealand Royal visit to NZ in 1953–54

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