Parliament | Wikipedia audio article
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Parliament | Wikipedia audio article

October 13, 2019


In modern politics and history, a parliament
is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions:
representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings
and inquiries.The term is similar to the idea of a senate, synod or congress, and is commonly
used in countries that are current or former monarchies, a form of government with a monarch
as the head. Some contexts restrict the use of the word
parliament to parliamentary systems, although it is also used to describe the legislature
in some presidential systems (e.g. the French parliament), even where it is not in the official
name. Historically, parliaments included various
kinds of deliberative, consultative, and judicial assemblies, e.g. medieval parlements.==Etymology==
The English term is derived from Anglo-Norman and dates to the 14th century, coming from
the 11th century Old French parlement, from parler, meaning “to talk”. The meaning evolved over time, originally
referring to any discussion, conversation, or negotiation through various kinds of deliberative
or judicial groups, often summoned by a monarch. By the 15th century, in Britain, it had come
to specifically mean the legislature.==Early parliaments==Since ancient times, when societies were tribal,
there were councils or a headman whose decisions were assessed by village elders. This is called tribalism. Some scholars suggest that in ancient Mesopotamia
there was a primitive democratic government where the kings were assessed by council. The same has been said about ancient India,
where some form of deliberative assemblies existed, and therefore there was some form
of democracy. However, these claims are not accepted by
most scholars, who see these forms of government as oligarchies.Ancient Athens was the cradle
of democracy. The Athenian assembly (ἐκκλησία,
ekklesia) was the most important institution, and every free male citizen could take part
in the discussions. Slaves and women could not. However, Athenian democracy was not representative,
but rather direct, and therefore the ekklesia was different from the parliamentary system. The Roman Republic had legislative assemblies,
who had the final say regarding the election of magistrates, the enactment of new statutes,
the carrying out of capital punishment, the declaration of war and peace, and the creation
(or dissolution) of alliances. The Roman Senate controlled money, administration,
and the details of foreign policy.Some Muslim scholars argue that the Islamic shura (a method
of taking decisions in Islamic societies) is analogous to the parliament. However, others highlight what they consider
fundamental differences between the shura system and the parliamentary system.===Iran===
The first recorded signs of a council to decide on different issues in ancient Iran dates
back to 247 BC while the Parthian empire was in power. Parthians established the first Iranian empire
since the conquer of Persia by Alexander and by their early years of reigning an assembly
of the nobles called “Mehestan” was formed that made the final decision on very serious
issues.The word “Mehestan” consists of two parts. “Meh”, a word of the old Persian origin, which
literally means “The Great” and “-Stan”, a suffix in the Persian language, which describes
an especial place. Altogether Mehestan means a place where the
greats come together.The Mehestan Assembly, which consisted of Zoroastrian religious leaders
and clan elders exerted great influence over the administration of the kingdom.One of the
most important decisions of the council took place in 208 AD, when a civil war broke out
and the Mehestan decided that the empire would be ruled by two brothers simultaneously, Ardavan
V and Blash V. In 224 AD, following the dissolve of the Parthian
empire, after over 470 years, the Mahestan council came to an end===Spain===Although there are documented councils held
in 873, 1020, 1050 and 1063, there was no representation of commoners. What is considered to be the first parliament
(with the presence of commoners), the Cortes of León, was held in the Kingdom of León
in 1188. According to the UNESCO, the Decreta of Leon
of 1188 is the oldest documentary manifestation of the European parliamentary system. In addition, UNESCO granted the 1188 Cortes
of Alfonso IX the title of “Memory of the World” and the city of Leon has been recognized
as the “Cradle of Parliamentarism”.After coming to power, King Alfonso IX, facing an attack
by his two neighbours, Castile and Portugal, decided to summon the “Royal Curia”. This was a medieval organisation composed
of aristocrats and bishops but because of the seriousness of the situation and the need
to maximise political support, Alfonso IX took the decision to also call the representatives
of the urban middle class from the most important cities of the kingdom to the assembly. León’s Cortes dealt with matters like the
right to private property, the inviolability of domicile, the right to appeal to justice
opposite the King and the obligation of the King to consult the Cortes before entering
a war. Prelates, nobles and commoners met separately
in the three estates of the Cortes. In this meeting, new laws were approved to
protect commoners against the arbitrarities of nobles, prelates and the king. This important set of laws is known as the
Carta Magna Leonesa. Following this event, new Cortes would appear
in the other different territories that would make up Spain: Principality of Catalonia in
1192, the Kingdom of Castile in 1250, Kingdom of Aragon in 1274, Kingdom of Valencia in
1283 and Kingdom of Navarre in 1300. After the union of the Kingdoms of Leon and
Castile under the Crown of Castile, their Cortes were united as well in 1258. The Castilian Cortes had representatives from
Burgos, Toledo, León, Seville, Córdoba, Murcia, Jaén, Zamora, Segovia, Ávila, Salamanca,
Cuenca, Toro, Valladolid, Soria, Madrid, Guadalajara and Granada (after 1492). The Cortes’ assent was required to pass new
taxes, and could also advise the king on other matters. The comunero rebels intended a stronger role
for the Cortes, but were defeated by the forces of Habsburg Emperor Charles V in 1521. The Cortes maintained some power, however,
though it became more of a consultative entity. However, by the time of King Philip II, Charles’s
son, the Castilian Cortes had come under functionally complete royal control, with its delegates
dependent on the Crown for their income.The Cortes of the Crown of Aragon kingdoms retained
their power to control the king’s spending with regard to the finances of those kingdoms. But after the War of the Spanish Succession
and the victory of another royal house – the Bourbons – and King Philip V, their Cortes
were suppressed (those of Aragon and Valencia in 1707, and those of Catalonia and the Balearic
islands in 1714). Claims that Spain was united under the Catholic
Monarchs in the late 15th century are belied by these facts; moreover, the very first Cortes
representing the whole of Spain (and the Spanish empire of the day) did not assemble until
1812, in Cadiz, where it operated as a government in exile for, ironically, at that time most
of the rest of Spain was in the hands of Napoleon’s army.===England=======Early forms of assembly====
England has long had a tradition of a body of men who would assist and advise the king
on important matters. Under the Anglo-Saxon kings, there was an
advisory council, the Witenagemot. The name derives from the Old English ƿitena
ȝemōt, or witena gemōt, for “meeting of wise men”. The first recorded act of a witenagemot was
the law code issued by King Æthelberht of Kent ca. 600, the earliest document which
survives in sustained Old English prose; however, the witan was certainly in existence long
before this time. The Witan, along with the folkmoots (local
assemblies), is an important ancestor of the modern English parliament.As part of the Norman
Conquest of England, the new king, William I, did away with the Witenagemot, replacing
it with a Curia Regis (“King’s Council”). Membership of the Curia was largely restricted
to the tenants in chief, the few nobles who “rented” great estates directly from the king,
along with ecclesiastics. William brought to England the feudal system
of his native Normandy, and sought the advice of the curia regis before making laws. This is the original body from which the Parliament,
the higher courts of law, and the Privy Council and Cabinet descend. Of these, the legislature is formally the
High Court of Parliament; judges sit in the Supreme Court of Judicature. Only the executive government is no longer
conducted in a royal court. Most historians date the emergence of a parliament
with some degree of power to which the throne had to defer no later than the rule of Edward
I. Like previous kings, Edward called leading
nobles and church leaders to discuss government matters, especially finance. A meeting in 1295 became known as the Model
Parliament because it set the pattern for later Parliaments. The significant difference between the Model
Parliament and the earlier Curia Regis was the addition of the Commons; that is, the
inclusion of elected representatives of rural landowners and of townsmen. In 1307, Edward I agreed not to collect certain
taxes without the consent of the realm. He also enlarged the court system.====Magna Carta and the Model Parliament
====The tenants-in-chief often struggled with
their spiritual counterparts and with the king for power. In 1215, they secured from King John of England
Magna Carta, which established that the king may not levy or collect any taxes (except
the feudal taxes to which they were hitherto accustomed), save with the consent of a council. It was also established that the most important
tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics be summoned to the council by personal writs from the
sovereign, and that all others be summoned to the council by general writs from the sheriffs
of their counties. Modern government has its origins in the Curia
Regis; parliament descends from the Great Council later known as the parliamentum established
by Magna Carta. During the reign of King Henry III, 13th-Century
English Parliaments incorporated elected representatives from shires and towns. These parliaments are, as such, considered
forerunners of the modern parliament.In 1265, Simon de Montfort, then in rebellion against
Henry III, summoned a parliament of his supporters without royal authorization. The archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, and
barons were summoned, as were two knights from each shire and two burgesses from each
borough. Knights had been summoned to previous councils,
but it was unprecedented for the boroughs to receive any representation. Come 1295, Edward I later adopted de Montfort’s
ideas for representation and election in the so-called “Model Parliament”. At first, each estate debated independently;
by the reign of Edward III, however, Parliament recognisably assumed its modern form, with
authorities dividing the legislative body into two separate chambers.====Parliament under Henry VIII and Edward
VI====The purpose and structure of Parliament in
Tudor England underwent a significant transformation under the reign of Henry VIII. Originally its methods were primarily medieval,
and the monarch still possessed a form of inarguable dominion over its decisions. According to Elton, it was Thomas Cromwell,
1st Earl of Essex, then chief minister to Henry VIII, who initiated still other changes
within parliament. The Reformation Acts supplied Parliament with
unlimited power over the country. This included authority over virtually every
matter, whether social, economic, political, or religious; it legalised the Reformation,
officially and indisputably. The king had to rule through the council,
not over it, and all sides needed to reach a mutual agreement when creating or passing
laws, adjusting or implementing taxes, or changing religious doctrines. This was significant: the monarch no longer
had sole control over the country. For instance, during the later years of Mary,
Parliament exercised its authority in originally rejecting Mary’s bid to revive Catholicism
in the realm. Later on, the legislative body even denied
Elizabeth her request to marry. If Parliament had possessed this power before
Cromwell, such as when Wolsey served as secretary, the Reformation may never have happened, as
the king would have had to gain the consent of all parliament members before so drastically
changing the country’s religious laws and fundamental identity. The power of Parliament increased considerably
after Cromwell’s adjustments. It also provided the country with unprecedented
stability. More stability, in turn, helped assure more
effective management, organisation, and efficiency. Parliament printed statutes and devised a
more coherent parliamentary procedure. The rise of Parliament proved especially important
in the sense that it limited the repercussions of dynastic complications that had so often
plunged England into civil war. Parliament still ran the country even in the
absence of suitable heirs to the throne, and its legitimacy as a decision-making body reduced
the royal prerogatives of kings like Henry VIII and the importance of their whims. For example, Henry VIII could not simply establish
supremacy by proclamation; he required Parliament to enforce statutes and add felonies and treasons. An important liberty for Parliament was its
freedom of speech; Henry allowed anything to be spoken openly within Parliament and
speakers could not face arrest – a fact which they exploited incessantly. Nevertheless, Parliament in Henry VIII’s time
offered up very little objection to the monarch’s desires. Under his and Edward’s reign, the legislative
body complied willingly with the majority of the kings’ decisions. Much of this compliance stemmed from how the
English viewed and traditionally understood authority. As Williams described it, “King and parliament
were not separate entities, but a single body, of which the monarch was the senior partner
and the Lords and the Commons the lesser, but still essential, members.”.====Importance of the Commonwealth years
====Although its role in government expanded significantly
during the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI, the Parliament of England saw some of
its most important gains in the 17th century. A series of conflicts between the Crown and
Parliament culminated in the execution of King Charles I in 1649. Afterward, England became a commonwealth,
with Oliver Cromwell, its lord protector, the de facto ruler. Frustrated with its decisions, Cromwell purged
and suspended Parliament on several occasions. A controversial figure accused of despotism,
war crimes, and even genocide, Cromwell is nonetheless regarded as essential to the growth
of democracy in England. The years of the Commonwealth, coupled with
the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 and the subsequent Glorious Revolution of 1688,
helped reinforce and strengthen Parliament as an institution separate from the Crown.====Acts of Union====
The Parliament of England met until it merged with the Parliament of Scotland under the
Acts of Union. This union created the new Parliament of Great
Britain in 1707.===Scotland===From the 10th century the Kingdom of Alba
was ruled by chiefs (toisechs) and subkings (mormaers) under the suzerainty, real or nominal,
of a High King. Popular assemblies, as in Ireland, were involved
in law-making, and sometimes in king-making, although the introduction of tanistry—naming
a successor in the lifetime of a king—made the second less than common. These early assemblies cannot be considered
“parliaments” in the later sense of the word, and were entirely separate from the later,
Norman-influenced, institution. The Parliament of Scotland evolved during
the Middle Ages from the King’s Council of Bishops and Earls. The unicameral parliament is first found on
record, referred to as a colloquium, in 1235 at Kirkliston (a village now in Edinburgh). By the early fourteenth century the attendance
of knights and freeholders had become important, and from 1326 burgh commissioners attended. Consisting of the Three Estates; of clerics,
lay tenants-in-chief and burgh commissioners sitting in a single chamber, the Scottish
parliament acquired significant powers over particular issues. Most obviously it was needed for consent for
taxation (although taxation was only raised irregularly in Scotland in the medieval period),
but it also had a strong influence over justice, foreign policy, war, and all manner of other
legislation, whether political, ecclesiastical, social or economic. Parliamentary business was also carried out
by “sister” institutions, before c. 1500 by General Council and thereafter by the Convention
of Estates. These could carry out much business also dealt
with by Parliament – taxation, legislation and policy-making – but lacked the ultimate
authority of a full parliament. The parliament, which is also referred to
as the Estates of Scotland, the Three Estates, the Scots Parliament or the auld Scots Parliament
(Eng: old), met until the Acts of Union merged the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament
of England, creating the new Parliament of Great Britain in 1707. Following the 1997 Scottish devolution referendum,
and the passing of the Scotland Act 1998 by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the
Scottish Parliament was reconvened on 1 July 1999, although with much more limited powers
than its 18th-century predecessor. The parliament has sat since 2004 at its newly
constructed Scottish Parliament Building in Edinburgh, situated at the foot of the Royal
Mile, next to the royal palace of Holyroodhouse.===Nordic and Germanic countries===A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic:
þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting, ding in Dutch) was the governing assembly in Germanic
societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. The thing was the assembly of the free men
of a country, province or a hundred (hundare/härad/herred). There were consequently, hierarchies of things,
so that the local things were represented at the thing for a larger area, for a province
or land. At the thing, disputes were solved and political
decisions were made. The place for the thing was often also the
place for public religious rites and for commerce. The thing met at regular intervals, legislated,
elected chieftains and kings, and judged according to the law, which was memorised and recited
by the “law speaker” (the judge). The Icelandic, Faroese and Manx parliaments
trace their origins back to the Viking expansion originating from the Petty kingdoms of Norway
as well as Denmark, replicating Viking government systems in the conquered territories, such
as those represented by the Gulating near Bergen in western Norway. The Icelandic Althing, dating to 930. The Faroese Løgting, dating to a similar
period. The Manx Tynwald, which claims to be over
1,000 years old.Later national diets with chambers for different estates developed,
e.g. in Sweden and in Finland (which was part of Sweden until 1809), each with a House of
Knights for the nobility. In both these countries, the national parliaments
are now called riksdag (in Finland also eduskunta), a word used since the Middle Ages and equivalent
of the German word Reichstag. Today the term lives on in the official names
of national legislatures, political and judicial institutions in the North-Germanic countries. In the Yorkshire and former Danelaw areas
of England, which were subject to much Norse invasion and settlement, the wapentake was
another name for the same institution.===Italy===
The Sicilian Parliament, dating to 1097, evolved as the legislature of the Kingdom of Sicily.===Switzerland===The Federal Diet of Switzerland was one of
the longest-lived representative bodies in history, continuing from the 13th century
to 1848.===France===Originally, there was only the Parliament
of Paris, born out of the Curia Regis in 1307, and located inside the medieval royal palace,
now the Paris Hall of Justice. The jurisdiction of the Parliament of Paris
covered the entire kingdom. In the thirteenth century, judicial functions
were added. In 1443, following the turmoil of the Hundred
Years’ War, King Charles VII of France granted Languedoc its own parliament by establishing
the Parliament of Toulouse, the first parliament outside of Paris, whose jurisdiction extended
over the most part of southern France. From 1443 until the French Revolution several
other parliaments were created in some provinces of France (Grenoble, Bordeaux). All the parliaments could issue regulatory
decrees for the application of royal edicts or of customary practices; they could also
refuse to register laws that they judged contrary to fundamental law or simply as being untimely. Parliamentary power in France was suppressed
more so than in England as a result of absolutism, and parliaments were eventually overshadowed
by the larger Estates General, up until the French Revolution, when the National Assembly
became the lower house of France’s bicameral legislature.===Poland===According to the Chronicles of Gallus Anonymus,
the first legendary Polish ruler, Siemowit, who began the Piast Dynasty, was chosen by
a wiec. The veche (Russian: вече, Polish: wiec)
was a popular assembly in medieval Slavic countries, and in late medieval period, a
parliament. The idea of the wiec led in 1182 to the development
of the Polish parliament, the Sejm. The term “sejm” comes from an old Polish expression
denoting a meeting of the populace. The power of early sejms grew between 1146–1295,
when the power of individual rulers waned and various councils and wiece grew stronger. The history of the national Sejm dates back
to 1182. Since the 14th century irregular sejms (described
in various Latin sources as contentio generalis, conventio magna, conventio solemna, parlamentum,
parlamentum generale, dieta or Polish sejm walny) have been called by Polish kings. From 1374, the king had to receive sejm permission
to raise taxes. The General Sejm (Polish Sejm Generalny or
Sejm Walny), first convoked by the king John I Olbracht in 1493 near Piotrków, evolved
from earlier regional and provincial meetings (sejmiks). It followed most closely the sejmik generally,
which arose from the 1454 Nieszawa Statutes, granted to the szlachta (nobles) by King Casimir
IV the Jagiellonian. From 1493 forward, indirect elections were
repeated every two years. With the development of the unique Polish
Golden Liberty the Sejm’s powers increased. The Commonwealth’s general parliament consisted
of three estates: the King of Poland (who also acted as the Grand Duke of Lithuania,
Russia/Ruthenia, Prussia, Mazovia, etc.), the Senat (consisting of Ministers, Palatines,
Castellans and Bishops) and the Chamber of Envoys—circa 170 nobles (szlachta) acting
on behalf of their Lands and sent by Land Parliaments. Also representatives of selected cities but
without any voting powers. Since 1573 at a royal election all peers of
the Commonwealth could participate in the Parliament and become the King’s electors.===Ukraine===Cossack Rada was the legislative body of a
military republic of the Ukrainian Cossacks that grew rapidly in the 15th century from
serfs fleeing the more controlled parts of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth. The republic did not regard social origin/nobility
and accepted all people who declared to be Orthodox Christians. Originally established at the Zaporizhian
Sich, the rada (council) was an institution of Cossack administration in Ukraine from
the 16th to the 18th century. With the establishment of the Hetman state
in 1648, it was officially known as the General Military Council until 1750.===Russia===The zemsky sobor (Russian: зе́мский
собо́р) was the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type, in the 16th and
17th centuries. The term roughly means assembly of the land. It could be summoned either by tsar, or patriarch,
or the Boyar Duma. Three categories of population, comparable
to the Estates-General of France but with the numbering of the first two Estates reversed,
participated in the assembly: Nobility and high bureaucracy, including the
Boyar Duma The Holy Sobor of high Orthodox clergy
Representatives of merchants and townspeople (third estate)
The name of the parliament of nowadays Russian Federation is the Federal Assembly of Russia. The term for its lower house, State Duma (which
is better known than the Federal Assembly itself, and is often mistaken for the entirety
of the parliament) comes from the Russian word думать (dumat), “to think”. The Boyar Duma was an advisory council to
the grand princes and tsars of Muscovy. The Duma was discontinued by Peter the Great,
who transferred its functions to the Governing Senate in 1711.====Novgorod and Pskov====
The veche was the highest legislature and judicial authority in the republic of Novgorod
until 1478. In its sister state, Pskov, a separate veche
operated until 1510. Since the Novgorod revolution of 1137 ousted
the ruling grand prince, the veche became the supreme state authority. After the reforms of 1410, the veche was restructured
on a model similar to that of Venice, becoming the Commons chamber of the parliament. An upper Senate-like Council of Lords was
also created, with title membership for all former city magistrates. Some sources indicate that veche membership
may have become full-time, and parliament deputies were now called vechniks. It is recounted that the Novgorod assembly
could be summoned by anyone who rung the veche bell, although it is more likely that the
common procedure was more complex. This bell was a symbol of republican sovereignty
and independence. The whole population of the city—boyars,
merchants, and common citizens—then gathered at Yaroslav’s Court. Separate assemblies could be held in the districts
of Novgorod. In Pskov the veche assembled in the court
of the Trinity cathedral.===Roman Catholic Church===”Conciliarism” or the “conciliar movement”,
was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Roman Catholic Church which held that
final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Roman Church as corporation of Christians,
embodied by a general church council, not with the pope. In effect, the movement sought – ultimately,
in vain – to create an All-Catholic Parliament. Its struggle with the Papacy had many points
in common with the struggle of parliaments in specific countries against the authority
of Kings and other secular rulers.==Development of modern parliaments==
The development of the modern concept of parliamentary government dates back to the Kingdom of Great
Britain (1707–1800) and the parliamentary system in Sweden during the Age of Liberty
(1718–1772).===Parliaments of the United Kingdom===The British Parliament is often referred to
as the Mother of Parliaments (in fact a misquotation of John Bright, who remarked in 1865 that
“England is the Mother of Parliaments”) because the British Parliament has been the model
for most other parliamentary systems, and its Acts have created many other parliaments. Many nations with parliaments have to some
degree emulated the British “three-tier” model. Most countries in Europe and the Commonwealth
have similarly organised parliaments with a largely ceremonial head of state who formally
opens and closes parliament, a large elected lower house and a smaller, upper house.The
Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 by the Acts of Union that replaced the
former parliaments of England and Scotland. A further union in 1801 united the Parliament
of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland into a Parliament of the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, Parliament consists
of the House of Commons, the House of Lords, and the Monarch. The House of Commons is composed of 650 (soon
to be 600) members who are directly elected by British citizens to represent single-member
constituencies. The leader of a Party that wins more than
half the seats, or less than half but is able to gain the support of smaller parties to
achieve a majority in the house is invited by the Monarch to form a government. The House of Lords is a body of long-serving,
unelected members: Lords Temporal – 92 of whom inherit their titles (and of whom 90
are elected internally by members of the House to lifetime seats), 588 of whom have been
appointed to lifetime seats, and Lords Spiritual – 26 bishops, who are part of the house
while they remain in office. Legislation can originate from either the
Lords or the Commons. It is voted on in several distinct stages,
called readings, in each house. First reading is merely a formality. Second reading is where the bill as a whole
is considered. Third reading is detailed consideration of
clauses of the bill. In addition to the three readings a bill also
goes through a committee stage where it is considered in great detail. Once the bill has been passed by one house
it goes to the other and essentially repeats the process. If after the two sets of readings there are
disagreements between the versions that the two houses passed it is returned to the first
house for consideration of the amendments made by the second. If it passes through the amendment stage Royal
Assent is granted and the bill becomes law as an Act of Parliament. The House of Lords is the less powerful of
the two houses as a result of the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949. These Acts removed the veto power of the Lords
over a great deal of legislation. If a bill is certified by the Speaker of the
House of Commons as a money bill (i.e. acts raising taxes and similar) then the Lords
can only block it for a month. If an ordinary bill originates in the Commons
the Lords can only block it for a maximum of one session of Parliament. The exceptions to this rule are things like
bills to prolong the life of a Parliament beyond five years. In addition to functioning as the second chamber
of Parliament, the House of Lords was also the final court of appeal for much of the
law of the United Kingdom—a combination of judicial and legislative function that
recalls its origin in the Curia Regis. This changed in October 2009 when the Supreme
Court of the United Kingdom opened and acquired the former jurisdiction of the House of Lords. Since 1999, there has been a Scottish Parliament
in Edinburgh, which is a national, unicameral legislature for Scotland. However, the Scottish Parliament does not
have complete power over Scottish Politics, as it only holds the powers which were devolved
to it by Westminster in 1997. It cannot legislate on defence issues, currency,
or national taxation (e.g. VAT, or Income Tax). Additionally, the Scottish Parliament can
be dissolved at any given time by the British Parliament without the consent of the devolved
government. This applies to all devolved governments within
the United Kingdom, a limit on the sovereignty of the devolved governments.===Parliament of Sweden===In Sweden, the half-century period of parliamentary
government beginning with Charles XII’s death in 1718 and ending with Gustav III’s self-coup
in 1772 is known as the Age of Liberty. During this period, civil rights were expanded
and power shifted from the monarch to parliament. While suffrage did not become universal, the
taxed peasantry was represented in Parliament, although with little influence and commoners
without taxed property had no suffrage at all.==Parliamentary system==Many parliaments are part of a parliamentary
system of government, in which the executive is constitutionally answerable to the parliament. Some restrict the use of the word parliament
to parliamentary systems, while others use the word for any elected legislative body. Parliaments usually consist of chambers or
houses, and are usually either bicameral or unicameral although more complex models exist,
or have existed (see Tricameralism). In some parliamentary systems, the prime minister
is a member of the parliament (e.g. in the United Kingdom), whereas in others they are
not (e.g. in the Netherlands). They are commonly the leader of the majority
party in the lower house of parliament, but only hold the office as long as the “confidence
of the house” is maintained. If members of the lower house lose faith in
the leader for whatever reason, they can call a vote of no confidence and force the prime
minister to resign. This can be particularly dangerous to a government
when the distribution of seats among different parties is relatively even, in which case
a new election is often called shortly thereafter. However, in case of general discontent with
the head of government, their replacement can be made very smoothly without all the
complications that it represents in the case of a presidential system. The parliamentary system can be contrasted
with a presidential system, such as the American congressional system, which operates under
a stricter separation of powers, whereby the executive does not form part of, nor is it
appointed by, the parliamentary or legislative body. In such a system, congresses do not select
or dismiss heads of governments, and governments cannot request an early dissolution as may
be the case for parliaments. Some states, such as France, have a semi-presidential
system which falls between parliamentary and congressional systems, combining a powerful
head of state (president) with a head of government, the prime minister, who is responsible to
parliament.==List of national parliaments=====Parliaments of the European Union===
European Parliament Parliament of Austria (consisting of the National
Council and the Federal Council) Belgian Federal Parliament (consisting of
the Chamber of Representatives and the Senate) National Assembly of Bulgaria
Croatian Parliament House of Representatives (Cyprus)
Parliament of the Czech Republic (consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate)
Folketing (Denmark) Riigikogu (Estonia)
Parliament of Finland Parliament of France (consisting of the National
Assembly and the Senate) Bundestag and Bundesrat (Germany)
Hellenic Parliament (Greece) National Assembly (Hungary)
Oireachtas (Ireland) (consisting of the President of Ireland, Dáil Éireann (Lower House) and
Seanad Éireann (Senate)) Parliament of Italy (consisting of the Chamber
of Deputies and the Senate) Saeima (Latvia)
Seimas (Lithuania) Chamber of Deputies (Luxembourg)
House of Representatives (Malta) States General of the Netherlands (consisting
of the House of Representatives and the Senate) National Assembly of the Republic of Poland
(consisting of the Sejm and the Senate) Assembly of the Republic (Portugal)
Parliament of Romania (consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate)
National Council (Slovakia) Parliament of Slovenia (consisting of the
National Assembly and the National Council) Cortes Generales (Spain) (consisting of the
Congress of Deputies and the Senate) Riksdag (Sweden)
Parliament of the United Kingdom (consisting of the Queen, the House of Commons and the
House of Lords)===Others===
Parliament of Albania Parliament of Australia (consisting of the
Queen, the House of Representatives, and the Senate)
The federal government of the Commonwealth of Australia has a bicameral parliament and
each of Australia’s six states has a bicameral parliament except for Queensland, which has
a unicameral parliament. Parliament of The Bahamas
Jatiya Sangsad (Bangladesh) Parliament of Barbados
Parliament of Canada (consisting of the Queen, an Upper House styled the Senate, and the
House of Commons) The federal government of Canada has a bicameral
parliament, and each of Canada’s 10 provinces has a unicameral parliament. National People’s Congress of the People’s
Republic of China Legislative Council of Hong Kong
Løgtingið (Faroe Islands) Parliament of Fiji
Parliament of Ghana Parliament of Iceland
Parliament of India (consisting of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha)
Council of Representatives of Iraq National Diet of Japan (consisting of the
House of Representatives and the House of Councillors)
Parliament of Lebanon Parliament of the Isle of Man – Tynwald
Parliament of Malaysia Parliament of Montenegro
Parliament of Morocco Parliament of Nauru
Parliament of Nepal (recently reorganised) Parliament of New Zealand (consisting of the
Queen and House of Representatives) Assembly of the Republic of North Macedonia
Parliament of Norway (Storting) Majlis-e-Shoora, Pakistan
National Assembly of Serbia Parliament of Singapore
Parliament of South Africa Parliament of Sri Lanka
Legislative Yuan of Taiwan National Assembly of Thailand
Parliament of the Central Tibetan Administration Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago
Grand National Assembly of Turkey Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine
Parliament of Zimbabwe==
List of subnational parliamentary governments=====Australia===Australia’s States and territories: Parliament of New South Wales
Parliament of Victoria Parliament of Queensland
Parliament of Western Australia Parliament of South Australia
Parliament of Tasmania Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly
Parliament of the Northern Territory===
Belgium===In the federal (bicameral) kingdom of Belgium,
there is a curious asymmetrical constellation serving as directly elected legislatures for
three “territorial” regions—Flanders (Dutch), Brussels (bilingual, certain peculiarities
of competence, also the only region not comprising any of the 10 provinces) and Wallonia (French)—and
three cultural communities—Flemish (Dutch, competent in Flanders and for the Dutch-speaking
inhabitants of Brussels), Francophone (French, for Wallonia and for Francophones in Brussels)
and German (for speakers of that language in a few designated municipalities in the
east of the Walloon Region, living alongside Francophones but under two different regimes) Flemish Parliament served both the Flemish
Community (whose same it uses) and, in application of a Belgian constitutional option, of the
region of Flanders (in all matters of regional competence, its decisions have no effect in
Brussels-Capital Region) Parliament of the French Community
Parliament of the German-speaking Community Parliament of Wallonia
Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region;within the capital’s regional assembly however, there
also exist two so-called Community Commissions (fixed numbers, not an automatic repartition
of the regional assembly), a Dutch-speaking one and a Francophone one, for various matters
split up by linguistic community but under Brussels’ regional competence, and even ‘joint
community commissions’ consisting of both for certain institutions that could be split
up but are not.===Canada===Canada’s provinces and territories: Legislative Assembly of Ontario
Quebec Legislature General Assembly of Nova Scotia
New Brunswick Legislature Manitoba Legislature
Parliament of British Columbia General Assembly of Prince Edward Island
Saskatchewan Legislature Alberta Legislature
General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories
Yukon Legislative Assembly Legislative Assembly of Nunavut===Denmark===
Inatsisartut Løgting===Finland===
Parliament of Åland===Germany===
State legislatures of Germany===
India===
|map=Indian States and Territories Legislative
assemblies: Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly
Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly Assam Legislative Assembly
Bihar Legislative Assembly Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly
Delhi Legislative Assembly Goa Legislative Assembly
Gujarat Legislative Assembly Haryana Legislative Assembly
Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly
Jharkhand Legislative Assembly Karnataka Legislative Assembly
Kerala Legislative Assembly Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly
Maharashtra Legislative Assembly Manipur Legislative Assembly
Meghalaya Legislative Assembly Mizoram Legislative Assembly
Nagaland Legislative Assembly Odisha Legislative Assembly
Puducherry Legislative Assembly Punjab Legislative Assembly
Rajasthan Legislative Assembly Sikkim Legislative Assembly
Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly Telangana Legislative Assembly
Tripura Legislative Assembly Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly
Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly West Bengal Legislative Assembly Indian States Legislative councils Andhra Pradesh Legislative Council
Bihar Legislative Council Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Council
Karnataka Legislative Council Maharashtra Legislative Council
Telangana Legislative Council Uttar Pradesh Legislative Council===Malaysia======
Netherlands===States-Provincial===Norway======Spain======Switzerland======
United Kingdom===Northern Ireland Assembly
Scottish Parliament Welsh Assembly==
Other parliaments==Parliament of Zimbabwe===Contemporary supranational parliaments
===List is not exhaustivePan-African Parliament
Central American Parliament Latin American Parliament
European Parliament===Equivalent national legislatures===
Majlis, e.g. in Iran in Afghanistan: Wolesi Jirga (elected, legislative
lower house) and Meshrano Jirga (mainly advisory, indirect representation); in special cases,
e.g. as constituent assembly, a Loya Jirga in Indonesia: People’s Consultative Assembly,
consists of People’s Representative Council (elected, legislative lower house) and Regional
Representative Council (elected, legislative upper house with limited powers)===Defunct===
Parliament of Southern Ireland (1921–1922) People’s Parliament (1940s)
Silesian Parliament (1922–1945) Parliament of Northern Ireland (1921–1973)
Batasang Pambansâ (1978–1986) National Assembly of the Republic of China
(1913–2005) Parliament of Zimbabwe 1980-2019==See also==
Congress Delegated legislation
Democratic mundialization Government
History of democracy Inter-Parliamentary Union
Legislation Parliamentary procedure
Parliamentary records Parliament of the World’s Religions
List of current presidents of assembly

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