Pollution Of Air & Water: Composition of Air – Gaseous & Particle Form of Impurity – 01/11
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Pollution Of Air & Water: Composition of Air – Gaseous & Particle Form of Impurity – 01/11

September 15, 2019


Hello Students,
Today we are going to read something about Our Environment,
Like, we will just have a look how it was before many years? And how it has change dramatically? What are the reasons of this change? What are the effects of this change? And what can be a future if we don’t take
certain important steps to change this today. Okay? So, our future can be in dark. So, today we are going to read the chapter
Pollution, And pollution of what? So, Pollution of Air and Water. Okay? So, like you know before starting the chapter. This, I would like to talk about the things
which is very important for us. Everybody. Irrespective of you, me your friends, your
parents, your teacher for everyone. What is the thing, which is of most importance? So, you know just think of that. It can be food, it can be may be you know,
when I asked this question to some children they say mobile phones. So, they can’t survive without mobile phones. Someone says maybe laptops, maybe television,
maybe you know some sports. But you know these all are very, I should
say you know, materialistic things. Which do not have any importance. When I talk about survival. Okay? A survival. What are the thing which is of utmost important
for human survival. For the survival of life on the surface of
the earth. If we say food. Three things I can say. Okay? I can say food. But, you know if I say food, I can live without
food for at least two to three days. And you know we know some people in some particular
religion like Jainism. They often keep fast and they do not eat for
even you know 16 or days and maybe for one month. They don’t eat in the evenings also. Not at all nothing. That means they can live, they can survive
for one month. So, I can’t say that food is of at most importance. Okay? It is important. But not so important. So, what can be the second thing? I can write water. Without water, see from last two hours I have
not had water. Okay? So, I have not drunk water. So, from last two hours I am without water. Not a big deal, like we can be without water
say for one day a whole day. So we should thing for something else. So now I can write AIR. Just imagine Air. So important! Just try to be without air for few minutes. Okay? Few minutes also we can’t survive. Just leave the, you know one or two exceptional
cases. The one who is very expert in yoga and stopping
and having a good control over their breath, over the you know inhaling and exhaling. I will leave apart of some you know the good
swimmers you know who can stop inhaling and exhaling for long period. But in general for common people if we talk
about air. Air is such an important part of our life. That without air you just try to keep your
nose close for seconds you know. You will just feel like suffocating. And you will just feel like you will just
you will remove yourself your hand. And you will understand the importance of
air. Okay? Now, when we know that air is so important. Air is more important than food,
Air is more important than water. Okay? When air is so important. Okay? Then what is happening to us? Why are we spoiling the air. Just imagine the condition when we don’t have
any kind of fresh. No fresh air is left for us. Just imagine that condition. Just so its a you know, a goose bumps comes
when I think I have no fresh air. It will be so suffocating. Okay? Just try to imagine,
Don’t even imagine talk to your parents. What was the type of environment or the atmosphere
or the climatic conditions, When they used to be young like you. When they used to be of your age. Okay? Do we used to have delayed monsoons? Do we used to have such hot summers? No, we don’t! We never use to have such hot summers; we
never use to have such delayed rains. And in general if we talk about, you know
like the area around their houses. How it used to be? It used to you know like, they will tell you. And please ask, before reading before processing
you will have an idea what a drastic change is there. Okay? They will tell you that how they used to have
big trees. You know and a very calm and peaceful life. Just you know now if we talk about, lot of
honking, and only concrete buildings are there. And you know when I am saying you that you
please ask your parents. How their environment was? Now I will ask you to please have a look,
just try to recollect what kind of environment or climate was,
When you used to be very small. Okay? What are the changes which you can see around
your house, your place, your school. Now, and what it was before say ten years
or say five years. Okay? So, if you try to recollect it,
You will find that numbers of buildings has increased. Okay? Number of concretes have increased. The number of trees has decreased. Okay? The number of birds has decreased and the
you know the natural things have totally you know it is getting reduced. Now, what has been increased? Our signals, the vehicles just few more comparison
we will talk about. I just want you to imagine if you have gone
to a village It’s very good. Or just imagine a life in village and a life
of city. Just try to compare the both. What is the life in cities and how is the
life in villages? Lot of difference. You will find plenty, N number of trees in
there which is totally missing in cities. You will find lot of concrete buildings, lot
of signals, vehicles honking sound, lot of sounds. But all this is not there in the village. Or you know to make it more simpler just carry
compare the traffic and particular hours, Say in the morning and in the evening and
at the night and in the afternoon. There also you will find difference. Just you, yourself compare it… When it is more, when it is less. Okay? Now, if we try to compare all this things. Okay? When we try to keep ourselves in this position. Please also check, that where you feel more
comfortable? Where you feel, like in which situation you
like to hear lots of horns or you find yourself to be you know very peaceful condition, when
you are you know sitting under a tree. In a cool breeze. So, what you enjoy? What is more peaceful for you? Okay? Now, we just have a look about,
You know in our atmosphere the amount of air, the percentage of air is almost fixed. If I say it is 78 percent of nitrogen I am
talking approx, It is nitrogen and say 21 percent of oxygen. And say 1 percent of other gasses. Okay? What are the other gasses? May be carbon dioxide, may be argon. Okay? Maybe like many other gasses. What are the gasses are there when the water
vapor I should write. So, in this one percent lot many gasses are
there. But when we talk about the most part of the
atmosphere is covered by like which gas do we have? We have nitrogen, 21 percent of oxygen is
present around us. Okay? Like, the composition of air is almost, I
am again saying almost approx fixed. Okay? But then what is happening? What is been added? What is been added in the air? And what is happening? Okay? So, when I talk, when I say the contamination
of air by some unwanted and harmful substances. Okay? The contamination of air by some unwanted
and harmful substances. What it is? It is known as what? POLLUTION. Okay? What is pollution? The contamination
What is the meaning of contamination? To contaminate. Okay? To like you know when something is added which
is not at all useful for us, Rather it is unwanted. What it is ?
Unwanted as well as harmful. Okay? See what I am talking,
Around us air is present the composition of air is almost fixed. We have certain gasses in that. The amount of those gasses are fixed. Okay? When the amount of these gasses are fixed
and remains in the same condition. Then there is no danger. There is no problem. Okay? Are you clear? When does the problem arrives? When does the problem comes? The problem comes when there is change in
this composition When there is change in this natural atmosphere. And how does this change happens? What get added? Some unwanted and harmful substances or materials. Okay? Particles, it get added to the atmosphere. And this contamination is known as pollution. Okay? This is known as pollution. See, the contamination of air by some unwanted
and harmful substances. It cause only air pollution. If I talk about pollution, normal pollution. What can be the normal pollution? The contamination of, whatever we are talking
about. Okay? So the contamination of a particular thing. Okay? Or when the harmful or unwanted substance
get mixed up with the pure substance,. Then the thing is said to be polluted. Okay? So here we are talking about air pollution. Okay. Now what are the things which pollute the
air? Okay? So I will say the things which pollutes the
air is known as pollutants. Okay? This is what? Pollution. Now, we will keep this definition till the
time we are going to, we will get very clear with this. Okay? So, the contamination of air with certain
harmful and unwanted substances is known as what pollution? Air pollution. Okay? Now, the substance which pollutes the air
are called as what? Pollutants! Okay?
the substance which pollutes the air are called as what? Pollutants! What is the meaning of pollutants. The things which are responsible for creating
this pollution, the substances the particles which are responsible for this pollution are
known as what? Pollutants. Okay? The substances which pollutes, very simple
it is. Okay? See, whenever any unwanted or harmful thing
comes into a pure thing it gets pollute. Okay? And the things which are responsible to pollute
are known as what? Pollutants. So the substance which pollutes the air are
called as pollutants. Now see these pollutants can be of two types. Okay? Like we can say these pollutants can be in
two forms. Okay?
In two forms. So what are the forms? First of all it can be in the gaseous form. Okay? These pollutants can be in the gaseous form. Now, just try to recall all the gaseous which
you know. Okay? And always remember when these gases burn. Okay? When these gases burn they produce their oxide. Say for example if we talk about carbon. We have read this in metals and non metals. When carbon is burning. Burning means it is going to react with oxygen. So it going to produce carbon dioxide. Sulfur, when sulfur reacts with oxygen, it
is going to produce what? Sulfur di oxide. Yes, it is going to produce sulfur dioxide. That means whenever the gases are reacting
with oxygen means what? It is burning so whenever they are burning,
they are producing oxides. These gases when burns they produce oxides. And you know these oxides are the real villains. These are the real villains. These are very harmful for us. Now, see carbon is useful for us. Oxygen is useful for us. But when these reacts and the oxide is formed. So what is formed? Carbon dioxide is formed. Okay? Carbon dioxide is the pollutant. Can we say this? We will read it in the further chapter. Okay? So, first of all I will write the names of
few gases which act as pollutants. Which is responsible for polluting the atmosphere. Like carbon dioxide,
Okay? Like sulfur dioxide,
Just now I have said always remember. The oxides are very harmful. So, whatever when we talk about oxides like,
now say carbon mono oxide. Again very harmful. Okay? Now, nitrogen dioxide. Okay? Again very harmful. Now, just have a look. Carbon di oxide. What is the formula. CO2, sulfur di oxide SO2,
Carbon mono oxide CO, Nitrogen oxide NO2. What can be the more
I can write few more gases over here. Like it can be hydrogen sulfide, it is H2S. Okay? Hydrogen sulfide, it is H2S. I can even write methane. Okay? What is the formula for methane? It is CH4. It is not visible
Just one minute. What is the formula for methane? It is CH4. So many gases and all these gases are responsible
for creating pollution. For spreading pollution. So these are what? See I told you whatever is spreading pollution,
whatever is contaminating. Okay? The substance which pollutes the air are pollutants. So these are what? Pollutants. Okay? Pollutants can be in two forms. First form is what gaseous form. And second form is what? Particulate form. Okay Now, we just have a look upon this gases. What are the gases? Carbon di oxide, sulfur di oxide, carbon mono
oxide, nitrogen di oxide, hydrogen sulfide and methane. So many gases are there and all these gases
are responsible for what? Spreading pollution! And so these are what? Pollutants. Okay? Now, the second form I am going to talk about
is particulate form. Now, what is the meaning of particulate form? Now, these pollutants. Okay? These pollutants, they are present in the
form of the, Okay? These pollutants are present in the form of
suspended particles or particles. In the form of the, I can even write you know
tiny particles. I can write what? Tiny particles. Please try to understand here particulate form
means what? The particle, see atmosphere is there. Okay? In this atmosphere like what I am saying? This atmosphere is getting polluted? Okay? What is polluting it? The things which are polluting the atmosphere
is known as what? Pollutants. Okay? These pollutants, okay? These pollutants can be in two form. In the gaseous form. Okay? All the gases which just now we have discussed. And the second form is these pollutants are
tiny, small small particles. Okay? Small small particles. And so it is also known as suspended. It is also known as suspended particulate. Okay? It is known as suspended particulate matter. What is known as? It is known as suspended particulate matter. Or SPM. Okay? Now, what are these? These are also what? Pollutants. But these are present in the form of small
particles. Now see when I am rubbing the blackboard. Okay? Very often I just turn my face like this,
you know like I have to close my eyes sometimes. Why? When I write more what is happening? Just you can see the dust particles are moving
around. See you can see it. Okay? The dust particles are moving around. So what is this? This is again what? See you can see some flying in the air also. Okay? So what are these? These are pollutants. So you can find this whenever I rub the blackboard
I just have to see like this side. Or I have to look that side like some opposite
side. So, why these particles is a very very tiny
tiny particles. Which get mixed up with atmosphere. They fly along with the, they mixed up with
the gases. Okay? So hope you understood this thing. The atmosphere around us it is made up of gases. We all know gases. What are the gases present in the atmosphere? Oxygen, nitrogen. Okay? Then what? Even the chlorine, bromine all the,
Bromine is a liquid sorry. Okay? So what are the gases like carbon,
So this thing nitrogen is the gas. All these gases are present. Okay? So when this burns what is happening oxides
are formed. Oxides are what? It is very dangerous for the atmosphere because
it is acting as a pollutant. Okay. Now particulate form is also what? It is second form. Okay? So, now what is happening actually? Now, which kinds of particles are there in
the atmosphere. Which particles get mixed up with the atmosphere. So I will just write few. Like smoke. Okay? Smog. What is this? It is, I will explain you somewhere in the
chapter. Just for now I will write smog. Okay? Dust particles. Okay? Dust particles. Sand particles. Okay? Then may be cement dust. Okay? Maybe stone dust. Okay? Like many more many particles are there. When we talk about particulate forms. What is this? You all small particles. They become the part of the what? Atmosphere. And they create air pollution. And these are creating what? Pollution. In which way? They become the part of what? Atmosphere. So all these, what? This as well as this part. Both the parts. They combine and they, what they do? They pollute the atmosphere. For this in writing,
The blackboard is totally filled. Just imagine when they come? They created like they are in the form. Okay? They are present in the atmosphere. How much pollution this will be creating. Okay? So now we will just read, we just study like
what can be the different sources? From where this pollution like. What are the things? From where these things get produce. Okay? There must be something from all that things
are coming. Okay? So, we are going to study about that. Just a quick recap. What we are studying today? We are studying about the air pollution. Air is very important for us. We can’t even live for two you know the normal
person I am talking about, Not more than two or four odd minutes. Okay? Now, whenever the air get contaminate. Because of what? Something which is very harmful or unwanted. This is unwanted. Who wants this. We don’t want this. And all these are harmful also. So what is this. Whenever the air get contaminated due to some
unwanted and harmful substances. The pollution is created. Okay? The one who creates pollution are what? Pollutants. Now these pollutants can be of two forms. Gaseous and particulate form. All the gases which you can remember. Try to burn them. We have read metals and non metals just try
do this reaction in your mind only. We have read that when this reacts,
When the thing burn. What will be form. Oxides will be form. So all oxides. Carbon di oxide, sulfur di oxide, carbon mono
oxide, nitrogen oxide. Okay? All these are very harmful along with this. Hydrogen sulfide, methane all these are also
very harmful. But these are present in what? Gaseous form
Okay? Now, like along with this certain particles
are present which becomes the part of the atmosphere. Which is known as suspended particulate matter,
SPM. Okay? And it can be smoke, smog, dust particles,
sand particles, cement dust, stone dust you know even I can write over here. Hydro carbons. The leftover of the hydro carbons. So, even this can be the major source, these
are the major pollutants. Okay? Now what we are going to read? Now we will be reading about the sources due
to which all these pollutants are created. Okay?

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  1. Mam, I have no doubt that you are a good teacher but it would be very helpful if you explain by going to the core of any topic and terms😊more clearly

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