Preamble – China’s 2018 Constitution (Amended)
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Preamble – China’s 2018 Constitution (Amended)

October 23, 2019


中华人民共和国宪法
Constitution of the People’s Republic of China
(1982 年 12 月 4 日第五届全国人民代表大会第五次会议通过 1982 年 12 月 4 日全国人民代表大会公告公布施行
Adopted at the Fifth Session of the Fifth National People’s Congress and promulgated
for implementation by the Announcement of the National People’s Congress on
December Four, Nineteen Hundred and Eighty Two.
根据 1988 年 4 月 12 日第七届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过的《中华人民 共和国宪法修正案》、
Amended in accordance with the Amendments to the Constitution of the People’s
Republic of China adopted respectively at the First Session of the Seventh National
People’s Congress on April Twelve, Nineteen Hundred and Eighty Eight,
1993 年 3 月 29 日第八届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过的《中华人民共和 国宪法修正案》、
the First Session of the Eighth National People’s Congress on March Twenty Nine,
Nineteen Hundred and Ninety Three, 1999 年 3 月 15 日第九届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过的《中华人民共和
国宪法修正案》、2004 年 3 月 14 日第十届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过
的《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》 the Second Session of the Ninth National People’s
Congress on March Fifteen, Nineteen Hundred and Ninety Nine and the Second
Session of the Tenth National People’s Congress on March Fourteen, Two
Thousand and Four) 和 2018 年 3 月 11 日第十三届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过的《中华人民
共和国宪法修正案》修正) On March Eleven, Twenty Eighteen the First
Session of the Thirteenth National People’s Congress [adopted] the “Amendment of the Constitution
of the People’s Republic of China”. 目录
Table of Contents 序言
Preamble 第一章总 纲
Chapter One – General Principles 第二章 公民的基本权利和义务
Chapter Two – The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens
第三章 国家机构 Chapter Three – The Structure of the State
第一节 全国人民代表大会 Section One – The National People’s Congress
第二节 中华人民共和国主席 Section Two – The President of the People’s
Republic of China 第三节 国务院 Section Three – The State Council
第四节 中央军事委员会 Section Four – The Central Military Commission
第五节 地方各级人民代表大会和地方各级人民政府 Section Five – The Local People’s Congresses
and Local People’s Governments at all levels 第六节 民族自治地方的自治机关
Section Six – The Organs of Self-Government of National Autonomous Regions
第七节 监察委员会 Section Seven – The Supervision Commissions
第八节 人民法院和人民检察院 Section Eight – The People’s Courts and
the People’s Procuratorates 第四章 国旗、国歌、国徽、首都
Chapter Four – The National Flag, the National Anthem, the National Emblem and the Capital 序言
Preamble [Paragraph One]
中国是世界上历史最悠久的国家之一。中国各族人民共同创造了光辉灿烂的文 化,具有光荣的革命传统。
China is a country with one of the longest histories in the world. The people of all
of China’s nationalities have jointly created
a culture of grandeur and have a glorious revolutionary tradition.
[Paragraph Two] 一八四○年以后,封建的中国逐渐变成半殖民地、半封建的国家。中国人民为
国家独立、民族解放和民主自由进行了前仆后继的英勇奋斗。 After Eighteen Hundred and Forty, feudal China
was gradually turned into a semi- colonial and semi-feudal country. The Chinese
people waged many successive heroic struggles for national independence and liberation
and for democracy and freedom. [Paragraph Three]
二十世纪,中国发生了翻天覆地的伟大历史变革。 Great and earthshaking historical changes
have taken place in China in the Twentieth century.
[Paragraph Four] 一九一一年孙中山先生领导的辛亥革命,废除了封建帝制,创立了中华民国。
但是,中国人民反对帝国主义和封建主义的历史任务还没有完成。 The Revolution of Nineteen Eleven, led by
Dr. Sun Yat-sen, abolished the feudal monarchy and gave birth to the Republic of
China. But the historic mission of the Chinese people to overthrow imperialism and
feudalism remained unaccomplished. [Paragraph Five]
一九四九年,以毛泽东主席为领袖的中国共产党领导中国各族人民,在经历了 长期的艰难曲折的武装斗争和其他形式的斗争以后,终于推翻了帝国主义、封
建主义和官僚资本主义的统治,取得了新民主主义革命的伟大胜利,建立了中 华人民共和国。从此,中国人民掌握了国家的权力,成为国家的主人。
After waging protracted and arduous struggles, armed and otherwise, along a zigzag
course, the Chinese people of all nationalities led by the Communist Party of China
with Chairman Mao Zedong as its leader ultimately, in Nineteen Forty Nine,
overthrew the rule of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism, won a great
victory in the New-Democratic Revolution and founded the People’s Republic of
China. Since then the Chinese people have taken control of state power and become
masters of the country.
[Paragraph Six] 中华人民共和国成立以后,我国社会逐步实现了由新民主主义到社会主义的过
渡。生产资料私有制的社会主义改造已经完成,人剥削人的制度已经消灭,社 会主义制度已经确立。工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政,
实质上即无产阶级专政,得到巩固和发展。中国人民和中国人民解放军战胜了 帝国主义、霸权主义的侵略、破坏和武装挑衅,维护了国家的独立和安全,增
强了国防。经济建设取得了重大的成就,独立的、比较完整的社会主义工业体 系已经基本形成,农业生产显著提高。教育、科学、文化等事业有了很大的发
展,社会主义思想教育取得了明显的成效。广大人民的生活有了较大的改善。 After the founding of the People’s Republic,
China gradually achieved its transition from a New-Democratic to a socialist society.
The socialist transformation of the private ownership of the means of production
has been completed, the system of exploitation of man by man abolished and the
socialist system established. people’s democratic dictatorship led by
the working class and based on the alliance of
T he
workers and peasants, which is in essence the dictatorship of the proletariat, has been
consolidated and developed. The Chinese people and the Chinese People’s
Liberation Army have defeated imperialist and hegemonist aggression, sabotage
and armed provocations and have thereby safeguarded China’s national independence
and security and strengthened its national defence. Major successes have been
achieved in economic development. An independent and relatively comprehensive socialist
system of industry has basically been established. There has been a marked
increase in agricultural production. Significant advances have been made in educational,
scientific and cultural undertakings, while education in socialist
ideology has produced noteworthy results. The life of the people has improved considerably.
The victory in China’s New- Democratic Revolution and the successes in
its socialist cause have been achieved by the Chinese people of all nationalities, under
the leadership of the Communist Party of China and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism
and Mao Zedong Thought, by upholding truth, correcting errors and surmounting
numerous difficulties and hardships.
[Paragraph Seven] 中国新民主主义革命的胜利和社会主义事业的成就,是中国共产党领导中国各
族人民,在马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想的指引下,坚持真理,修正错误,战 胜许多艰难险阻而取得的。我国将长期处于社会主义初级阶段。国家的根本任
务是,沿着中国特色社会主义道路,集中力量进行社会主义现代化建设。中国 各族人民将继续在中国共产党领导下,在马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小
平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观、习近平新时代中国特色社会主义 思想指引下,坚持人民民主专政,坚持社会主义道路,坚持改革开放,不断完
善社会主义的各项制度,发展社会主义市场经济,发展社会主义民主,健全社 会主义法治,贯彻新发展理念,自力更生,艰苦奋斗,逐步实现工业、农业、
国防和科学技术的现代化,推动物质文明、政治文明、精神文明、社会文明、 生态文明协调发展,把我国建设成为富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化
强国,实现中华民族伟大复兴。 Under the leadership of the Communist Party
of China and the guidance of Marxism- Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and
the important thought of Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development, and
Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese characteristics for a New Era. The Chinese
people of all nationalities will continue to adhere to the people’s democratic dictatorship
and the socialist road, persevere in reform and opening to the outside world, steadily
improve socialist institutions, develop the socialist market economy, develop socialist
democracy, improve the socialist rule of law and apply a new vision of development [to]
work hard and self-reliantly to modernize the country’s industry, agriculture, national
defence and science and technology step by step and promote the coordinated development
of the material, political, spiritual, social and ecological civilizations, to turn China
into a strong modern socialist country that is prosperous, democratic, culturally advanced,
harmonious, and beautiful, and to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
Adhere to the socialist road, adhere to reform and opening up, constantly improve various
socialist systems, develop a socialist market economy, develop socialist democracy, improve
the socialist rule of law, implement new development concepts, and strive for self-reliance, hard
work, and gradual realization of industry and agriculture. Modernization of national
defense, science and technology, promote the coordinated development of material civilization,
political civilization, spiritual civilization, social and ecological civilization, to turn
China into a strong, modern socialist country that is prosperous, democratic, culturally
advanced, harmonious, and beautiful, and to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese
nation. [Paragraph Eight]
在我国,剥削阶级作为阶级已经消灭,但是阶级斗争还将在一定范围内长期存 在。中国人民对敌视和破坏我国社会主义制度的国内外的敌对势力和敌对分子
,必须进行斗争。 The exploiting classes as such have been abolished
in our country. However, class struggle will continue to exist within certain bounds for
a long time to come. The Chinese people must fight against those forces and elements, both
at home and abroad, that are hostile to China’s socialist system and try to undermine it.
[Paragraph Nine] 台湾是中华人民共和国的神圣领土的一部分。完成统一祖国的大业是包括台湾
同胞在内的全中国人民的神圣职责。 Taiwan is part of the sacred territory of
the People’s Republic of China. It is the inviolable duty of all Chinese people, including
our compatriots in Taiwan, to accomplish the great task of reunifying the motherland.
[Paragraph Ten] 社会主义的建设事业必须依靠工人、农民和知识分子,团结一切可以团结的力
量。在长期的革命、建设、改革过程中,已经结成由中国共产党领导的,有各 民主党派和各人民团体参加的,包括全体社会主义劳动者、社会主义事业的建
设者、拥护社会主义的爱国者、拥护祖国统一和致力于中华民族伟大复兴的爱 国者的广泛的爱国统一战线,这个统一战线将继续巩固和发展。中国人民政治
协商会议是有广泛代表性的统一战线组织,过去发挥了重要的历史作用,今后 在国家政治生活、社会生活和对外友好活动中,在进行社会主义现代化建设、
维护国家的统一和团结的斗争中,将进一步发挥它的重要作用。中国共产党领 导的多党合作和政治协商制度将长期存在和发展。
In building socialism it is essential to rely on workers, peasants and intellectuals and
to unite all forces that can be united. In the long years of revolution, construction,
and reform there has been formed under the leadership
of the Communist Party of China a broad patriotic united front which is composed
of the democratic parties and people’s organizations and which embraces all socialist
working people, all builders of socialism, all patriots who support socialism,
and all patriots who stand for the reunification of the motherland and endeavor
to revitalize the Chinese nation. This united front will be continued to be consolidated
and developed. The Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference,
a broadly based representative organization of the united front which has
played a significant historical role, will play a still more important role in the country’s
political and social life, in promoting friendship with other countries and in the
struggle for socialist modernization and for the reunification and unity of the country.
The system of the multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the communist
Party of China will exist and develop for a long time to come.
[Paragraph Eleven] 中华人民共和国是全国各族人民共同缔造的统一的多民族国家。平等团结互助
和谐的社会主义民族关系已经确立,并将继续加强。在维护民族团结的斗争中 ,要反对大民族主义,主要是大汉族主义,也要反对地方民族主义。国家尽一
切努力,促进全国各民族的共同繁荣。 The People’s Republic of China is a unitary
multi-national State created jointly by the people of all its nationalities. Socialist
relations of equality, unity and mutual assistance,and harmony have been established
among the nationalities and will continue to be strengthened. In the struggle
to safeguard the unity of the nationalities, it is necessary to combat big-nation chauvinism,
mainly Han chauvinism, and to combat local national chauvinism. The State
will do its utmost to promote the common prosperity of all
the nationalities. [Paragraph Twelve]
中国革命、建设、改革的成就是同世界人民的支持分不开的。中国的前途是同 世界的前途紧密地联系在一起的。中国坚持独立自主的对外政策,坚持互相尊
重主权和领土完整、互不侵犯、互不干涉内政、平等互利、和平共处的五项原 则,坚持和平发展道路,坚持互利共赢开放战略,发展同各国的外交关系和经
济、文化交流,推动构建人类命运共同体;坚持反对帝国主义、霸权主义、殖 民主义,加强同世界各国人民的团结,支持被压迫民族和发展中国家争取和维
护民族独立、发展民族经济的正义斗争,为维护世界和平和促进人类进步事业 而努力。
China’s achievements in revolution,construction,and reform are inseparable from
the support of the people of the world. The future of China is closely linked to the
future of the world. China consistently carries out an independent foreign policy and
adheres to the five principles of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial
integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs,
equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence follows a path of peaceful
development, and pursues a mutually beneficial strategy of opening up in developing
diplomatic relations and economic and cultural exchanges with other countries. China
consistently opposes imperialism, hegemonism and colonialism, works to strengthen
unity with the people of other countries, supports the oppressed nations and the
developing countries in their just struggle to win and preserve national independence
and d evelop their national economies, and strives
to safeguard world peace and promote the cause of human progress.
[Paragraph Thirteen] 本宪法以法律的形式确认了中国各族人民奋斗的成果,规定了国家的根本制度
和根本任务,是国家的根本法,具有最高的法律效力。全国各族人民、一切国 家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织,都必须以宪法为
根本的活动准则,并且负有维护宪法尊严、保证宪法实施的职责。 This Constitution, in legal form, affirms
the achievements of the struggles of the Chinese people of all nationalities and defines the
basic system and basic tasks of the State; it is the fundamental law of the State and
has supreme legal authority. The people of all nationalities, all State organs, the armed
forces, all political parties and public organizations and all enterprises and institutions in the
country must take the Constitution as the basic standard of conduct, and they have the
duty to uphold the dignity of the Constitution and ensure its implementation.

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