Preamble to the Indian Constitution
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Preamble to the Indian Constitution

September 18, 2019

Hello friends! Welcome to PreMate classes. In this lecture we will learn about the Preamble
to the Constitution of India. The Preamble states, We, the people of India,
solemnly resolve to constitute India into sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic,
republic and to secure to all its citizens: social, economic and political JUSTICE
LIBERTY of thought, expression, faith, belief, and worship;
EQUALITY of status and opportunity and to promote among them all;
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of an individual and the unity and integrity of the nation; In our constituent assembly, this day of 26th
November 1949, do we hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this constitution. Many difficult terms have been used in Preamble. Let us understand these terms one by one. Preamble starts with the expression We The
people of India. Even though the constitution has been drafted
by the constituent assembly but it is deemed that the constitution has been made by the
people of India. The members of constituent assembly were elected
by the elected members of state legislative assemblies. In the preamble the nature of the Indian State
is mentioned to be sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic, and republic. 1. Sovereign: is a nation which is independent
and which has no interference of external powers in management of its internal matters. 2. Socialist Socialist is the nation in which
the means of ownership are owned by government with the objective of welfare of masses. We have our own definition of socialism which
is different from general definition of socialism. Though we have adopted goals of socialism
such as welfare of masses but we have not adopted any rigid model of state (public)
ownership only. In our form of socialism, both public as well
as private sectors co-exist to attain welfare of masses. 3. Secular: A secular state is a state which
treats people belonging to different religions in the same manner. In Indian secularism, state does not favour
people belonging to one religion but is involved in promotion of all the religions equally. Thus, In India, we have positive form of secularism
i.e. state is neutral to all religions and it engages in promotion of all the religions
equally. In other nations which are also secular such
as France, state does not engage in promotion of religion and even restricts the freedom
of practicing religion in public life. Another example of secularism is ex-USSR where
the practice of religion even in private life was prohibited. 4. Democracy: ‘Demo’ means people and ‘cracy’
means rule. Democracy literally means ‘rule of people’. There are two kinds of democracy: direct and
indirect. In a direct democracy, people themselves take
decisions on various issues. In indirect or representative democracy, people
elect their representatives to form the Government. These representatives are chosen through free
and fair elections. These representatives decide on behalf of
the people. Ours is a representative democracy. 5. Republic: It is a form of Government in which
the head of a State is elected. For example: In India, both real head i.e. Prime minster and nominal head i.e. President are elected. The opposite to Republic is Monarchy. ‘Mono’ means single and ‘archy’ means
head. Thus, a monarch is a single head of State. Usually the monarchy is through heredity. We have learnt that the nature of India state
is Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic and Republic. We have adopted this nature of Indian State
to fulfill certain aspirations for Indian citizens. 1. Justice:
The term ‘Justice’ in the Preamble embraces three distinct forms, namely: a. Social Justice: Social justice refers to the
absence of discrimination and equal status for everyone in the society. b. Economic Justice: Economic Justice refers
to equal opportunity to everyone to make a living and to improve one’s standard of
living. c. Political Justice: Political justice refers
to equal opportunity to everyone to contest elections and to vote in elections. 2. Liberty: Liberty of
a. Thought
b. Expression
c. Belief and faith
d. Worship 3. Equality: of
a. Status
b. Opportunity ‘Equality’ means the absence of special
privileges to any section of society and provision of adequate opportunities for all individuals
without any discrimination. It does not mean equal distribution of wealth
among all the individuals. Further, preamble states that after retaining
equality of status and opportunity the state shall promote all the individuals. 4. Fraternity: Fraternity refers to brotherhood. The constitution promotes this feeling of
fraternity by the system of single citizenship. The Preamble declares that fraternity has
to assure two things – the dignity of an individual and the unity and integrity of
the nation. The Preamble also mentions the date of adoption
of constitution, i.e. 26th November, 1949. The date of adoption of constitution is different
from the date of commencement of constitution. The provisions relating to Citizenship, Election
Commission, and Definitions came into force on 26th November, 1949. Remaining provisions of this constitution
came into force on 26th January, 1950, referred as the date of commencement of constitution. The 26th January, 1950 was deliberately chosen
because on 26th January 1930 ‘purna swaraj day’ was celebrated in India. Celebration of ‘purna swaraj’ day meant
that Indians were ready for complete independence from Britishers. Role of the Preamble
The Preamble performs the multifaceted roles. As mentioned, preamble specifies the source
of authority of constitution, the nature of Indian state, the aspirations for the citizens,
and the date of adoption of constitution. Apart from the above roles, Preamble also
acts as introduction to the constitution and it discusses the objectives of the constitution. It also guides the various organs of the State
regarding the ideals of Indian Polity. For instance, Preamble is used by judiciary
to make appropriate interpretation of provisions of constitution and other laws. Amendment of Preamble:
Preamble has been amended only once, via 42nd Amendment Act passed in the year 1976. In this amendment, three words were introduced
in the preamble namely, 1. Socialist
2. Secular
3. Integrity Let us quickly revise the contents of the
preamble. The preamble mentions the source of authority
i.e., the people of India. The preamble mentions the nature of Indian
state. Sovereign: sovereign is a state which is independent. Socialist: socialist is a state which seeks
to attain welfare of the people. Secular: secular is a state which is neutral
towards people belonging to all the religions. Democracy: democracy refers to rule of people. Republic is a state where the head of the
states is elected. The preamble also mentions the aspirations
for the citizens: Justice, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. Further, it also mentions the date of adoption
of constitution i.e., 26th November, 1949. Let us evaluate ourselves on what we have
learnt of Preamble. Q1. The Preamble to the constitution serves which
of the following purpose? Statement 1: it indicates that authority of
the Government is derived from the people. This statement is correct. The preamble specifies that the source of
authority behind the Indian constitution is the people of India. Further, the constitution grants authority
to the Government of India. Thus, it can be said that the source of authority
behind the Government of India is the People of India. Statement2: it lays down the objectives which
the constitution seeks to accomplish. This statement is also correct. Statement 3: it helps judiciary to interpret
provisions of the constitution. This statement is also correct. Thus, option (d) is the correct answer. Q2. With reference to the preamble as enshrined
in the Indian constitution, consider the following statements:
Statement 1: ‘equality’ means removing all the differences among the citizens of
India. This statement is incorrect. Statement 2: ‘secular’ means government
will not interfere at all in the matters of religion. This statement is incorrect. Secularism only means that the state will
remain neutral towards people belonging to all the religions. In India, we have adopted positive form of
secularism i.e., state engages in all the religions equally. Thus, even promotion is considered as form
of interference in the matter of religion. Statement 3: ‘republic’ means that the
head of the state is a nominated person. This statement is incorrect. Thus, the answer choice is option (d) None. Thank you for watching this video. For Best learning you can watch this video along with Prepmate-Cengage UPSC series which is available online as well as offline. Book feature: complete subject in a single book with practice and past year questions at the end of the chapters. Model answers for UPSC Mains from authors. Using the application Prepmate and web portal you can access comprehensive digital support in form of videos, mock prelims, answer writing practice and regular updates.

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