The Mexican War of Independence
Articles Blog

The Mexican War of Independence

September 14, 2019

In this video which is part of the greater
project revolution we’re going to be talking about the Mexican war of independence in the
early 19th century. However before we start talking about the
Mexican war of independence or more accurately the Wars of independence. We have to understand the social, political,
economical and religious aspects that drove the Mexican ideas of revolution in the first
place. And for that we’ll have to look at the Viceroyalty
of New Spain. Also known as the Colony of New Spain. This colony was governed in all administrative
aspects by the Viceroy, who was appointed by the Spanish monarch. The Viceroy was supposed to govern a colony
which at its largest extended included Southern Canada, Venezuela, the Philippines, Florida,
etc. the pure scale of this colony meant that the Viceroy couldn’t really govern the entire
viceroyalty effectively and therefore most of the administrative and judicial matters
fell to the local governmental bodies, the largest of which where the audiencias. There’s way more political organization
in New Spain then we have time to get in to but some important things of note are that
the audiencias had to not only answer directly to the viceroy but also the council and minister
of the indies. However this was only in administrative matters
not judicial ones. Plus the audiencias weren’t even the only
governmental body, as there were smaller ones called cabildo, intendencies, captaincies
general, etc. Lastly what is important to understand, is
that even though this was the ViceRoyalty of New Spain at its largest extent, the borders
often changed and the viceroy control in some border regions was purely superficial. This vast colony was governed from the former
aztec capital Tenochtitlan now renamed Mexico City. Mexico City was not only the administrative
heartland of New Spain but also the economical and social one. It was the largest city in the Western Hemisphere
in the 18th century and was connected from the pacific by the port of Acapulco and the
Caribbean by the Port of Veracruz. This trade network going across the heartland
of Mexico created drastic economic development within the area which resulted in the fact
that by the 18th century, the lands between Veracruz, Mexico City and Acapulco had over
half of the entire population of New Spain. However this population of New Spain was very
heavily divided in to a casta system. This system assigned social, economic, administrative
and other privileges to people depending on their racial background. Now this system in its purest form was very
simple but in practice it was anything but simple. It also changed drastically since the foundation
of new spain in 1521 until the early 19th century. With that said I am going to be presenting
the casta system as it existed in the late 18th century. So the simple system went like this. On top where the peninsulares, people born
in Spain or elsewhere in Europe. This group had the largest social and economic
benefits and almost all high ranking administrative and governmental jobs in the colony could
be held by only them. Under Peninsulares were the Criollos, which
were people born to both Spanish or european parents in the Americas. Criollos mostly had the same benefits as Peninsulares
with the exception that they could only be appointed to lower level governmental jobs. Under the Criollos were mostly two classes. The Indios or Amerindians and the Mestizos. The Indios where people purely descended from
the native Indian population, and in fact some amerindian communities where very strict
in the notion of pure blood Indios. It is very hard to classify this group because
their social status was very heavily dependent on the families background. For example the Aztec nobility that existed
prior to the Spanish colonization got pretty much assimilated into the Spanish nobility. On top of that some Indios people became very
wealthy through mine or farm ownership and those people enjoyed a very high standard
within the society. With that said most of the indios people in
Mexico where poor peasants that were not allowed to hold any administrative jobs other than
in specifically defined amerindian communities. The Mestizos where people descended from one
Indios parent and one Spanish/European parent. In the early colonial era this term was associated
with being a bastard as Mestizos where oftentimes born out of wedlock however in the late 18th
century the term started to be much more widespread and started to encompass more racial subdivisions
then just purely having one indios and one european parent. By the 19th century the word Mestizo started
to be used to describe any kind of a mixed race person. Mestizos as Indios are hard to classify as
depending on their wealth, family history, and sometimes just purely skin color, they
could have benefits as high as of a Criollo. Under Indios and Mestizos were Mulatos, which
were people of european and African descended, and later also included people of Amerindian
and African descent. These people where at the low end of the casta
system not having any real benefits and if their mom was a slave they could also end
up being slaves. Lastly where the Negros, people of pure African
decent. These people were mostly slaves or descendants
of slaves brought to New Spain mainly during the 17th century, when Spain ruled over Portugal
and its vast Portuguese slave trade. However it is interesting to note that even
though legal by the late 18th century slave ownership was almost non existent and the
population of Africans in mainland of New Spain was no more than 0.2%. This was mostly because by the end of the
18th century there was an abundance of cheap labor, mainly from the growing mestizo class. This combined with the fact that mainland
New Spain had mostly higher profit margin jobs like the textile industry, the die industry,
mining, etc. meant that slavery was largely obsolete. The last important driving force in New Spain
was Catholicism. The Spanish inquisition was in full force
back in Europe and that mentality got very much transferred over in to New Spain creating
what we now call the Mexican Inquisition. The Mexican inquisition was focused heavily
on converting the larger native population in to Catholicism. The amerindians prior to the spanish arrival
had religion at the center of their society and with their conversion to Catholicism this
did not change. Even though in many areas this conversation
was forceful, ones converted the native population became devout catholics that brought in many
aspects from their old religions. There’s no better example of this then the
apparition of the Virgin Mary to an Indios farmer in the 16th century, now known as our
Lady of Guadeloupe. The lady of Guadeloupe would later become
a symbol for the mestizo and amerindian parts of the revolution. This new found avid devotion to catholicism
by the native population combined with the already existing avid devotion to catholicism
of the spanish, meant that the Catholic church had almost just the same amount of power in
New Spain as the Spanish monarchy itself. These three pillars of New Spain; governance,
religion and the casta system where the major forces behind the way the Mexican war of independence
started and finished. It all began during the Burbon reforms of
the 18th century when the new Burbon dynasty in Spain hoped to reform their overseas territories
to bring new prosperity to their country. These reforms were focused on centralizing
the administration of the colonies, reaffirming more direct Spanish control over the colonies
and diminishing the power of the church. However what the reforms ended up doing was
giving even more power to the Peninsulares making the Criollos and Mestizos unhappy and
also making enemies with the church which would later on make it more sympathetic towards
the mexicans during their strive for independence. As animosity against spain grew in all the
social classes except the Peninsulare, the ideas of a revolution became more and more
prominent within the mexican people. All it needed now was a spark to light the
fire, and this spark came in a form of an averagely tall Frenchman called Napoleon. Napoleon’s peninsular war which started
in 1807 was very messy and after the 1808 forced abdication of the Spanish monarch,
destroyed any Spanish control in the new world. Almost immediately after the abdication multiple
Juntas where created throughout spain, each claiming to be the legitimate representation
of the Spanish government and its king. These Juntas then sent out representatives
to the Spanish colonies, asking to be officially recognized by them. After receiving two representatives from two
different Spanish Juntas, the current Viceroy of New Spain José de Iturrigaray, was very
confused. Nonetheless this arrival of multiple representative
proved to everyone that Spain had no real control over New Spain anymore, and so the
debate about what to do next started. The Criollo party, which controlled the Mexico
City council, voted for self governance with the current viceroy at its head. Iturrigaray agreed as he was mostly a criollo
sympathizer and also would get to rule New Spain. However the Peninsulares who controlled the
audiencias vetoed this idea, arguing that New Spain was a colony and therefor did not
have the right to self govern without Spain. The peninsulares started to fear that their
control of New Spain was fading in favor of the Criollos and therefor created a coup against
Iturrigaray, arresting him on some dubious charges and quickly appointing one of their
own as a new Viceroy. For the next year Pedro de Garibay acted as
the Viceroy of the colony for all intensive purposes as if nothing was happening in Spain. After a year he recognized the Spanish Junta
of Aranjuez whom mostly managed centralize their power within Spain, and then he decided
to retire as he may have thought things bigger than him where brewing across the colony. He appointed Francisco Javier as his successor
but this guy also lasted only a year after being replaced by the Junta of Aranjuez. The new Viceroy Francisco Javier Venegas was
sent from Spain to quel now the extremely unhappy population of New Spain. This is because ever since the coup by the
Peninsulares against Iturrigaray most Mexicans felt like they were forcefully controlled
by the unlawful government in mexico city which seldomly cared for the people of New
Spain. And this idea was the battle cry for the first
Mexican independence movement that started just 2 days after Venegas took office. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was the leader of
this movement starting in the town of Dolores. The revolutionary army was small at first
numbering only around 600 men but the next few days they traveled across the Mexican
countryside killing any Peninsulares they came across and gaining much needed support,
equipment and manpower. They also adopted the standard of the Virgin
of Guadalupe which would draw in much needed Mestizo and Indios support for the revolution. By the time the Viceroy was able to muster
up some sort of an army for defence Hidalgo had around 100,000 men at his disposal. Hidalgo met the much smaller New Spain’s army
at the battle of Monte de las Cruces where they scored a decisive victory. Now with the Mexico city within their sight
Hidalgo made a decision that has puzzled historian to this day. He decided not to besiege Mexico city and
instead marched north towards the second most important city in Mexico, Guadalajara. Many of his troops disagreed with this choice
and started to deseret in mass. Ones he arrived to Guadalajara his army numbered
only around 6000 men. None the less he manage to take the city and
gained support from the cities lower classes and the surrounding countryside. By the time the new Viceroyal army arrived
to Guadalajara Hidalgo had again around 80 to 100 thousand men. However the army was ill equipped and therefore
was decisively defeated at the battle of Calderon Bridge. After this defeat the revolutionaries tried
to flee towards the US but were later captured and executed along with Hidalgo and with that
the Hidalgo’s independence movement was over. However the revolution itself was far from
over. The Peninsular abuse along with Hidalgos show
that the Spanish Could be defeated, meant that many new insurgencies spurred up all
around New Spain. Ignacio López Rayón in the center of the
country Father José María Morelos in the south and various other groups all around
the Colony. But all these groups weren’t united in their
pursuit for freedom. Some wanted the status quo unchanged other
then having Mexico not be under spanish control anymore and others wanted a full change of
the Mexican hierarchy, administrative system, policies and religion. Therefore it is unsurprising that due to such
disunity and difference of ideas the Mexican revolution continued in a stalemate until
1820 but what actually happened then? Well in 1820 after a decade of fighting the
various Mexican insurgencies where on the brink of collapse, mostly due to the now apathetic
stans of the Mexican people which were sick of fighting at this point. But in comes Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide
y Arámburu a Mexican nobleman who in 1820 was a royalist a colonel and a General of
South of New Spain. However despite his current status Iturbide
was a complicated man. He was always a conservative sympathetic to
the royalists but he was also a criollo meaning that throughout his life and military carrier
he faced setbacks due to the New Spain’s casta system. He was also asked by Hidalgo in the first
wave of the revolution to be a commander in his army. Iturbide however declined later joining the
royalists and fighting many of the insurgencies of the 1810s. From the victories he gained during this time
Iturbide garnered much prestige and support of the more conservative Mexicans. But by 1820 even Iturbide started to be fed
up with the entire war and the Peninsular control of the government. Plus being a conservative and a royalist when
Iturbide learned of a successful liberal revolution in Spain which established a constitutional
monarchy, he just as many other conservative Mexicans was afraid of what liberal changes
that would bring to a Monarchy centric New Spain. So when Iturbide was sent on what was suppose
to be the last royalist campaign against the wavering revolutionaries, instead of fighting
them he attended a meeting with the insurgency leader Vicente Guerrero. It was even at this first meeting that signs
of problems started to appear. Iturbide representing the Mexican conservative
values wanted a Monarchy with the aristocracy on top, an independent Mexican Monarchy but
a monarchy nonetheless. The revolutionaries on the other hand where
mostly republicans, hoping to establish a USA like republic. This divide was eventually settled by the
three guarantees. First the newly independent Mexico will become
a monarchy under a Spanish or any other European monarch that is willing to take the throne
but it will be a constitutional monarchy decided upon to appease the liberals. Second the aristocracy would still exist under
the Mexican Monarchy but the casta system would be abolished, with all Mexican people
counted as equals. Lastly to appease the conservatives and the
church the Catholic religion would become the official and only religion of the new
Mexican Empire. With this agreement which guaranteed the status
qou to be mostly unchanged for the higher class and equality with representation in
the constitutional monarchy for the lower class, for the first time in the Mexican revolution
most of the people were behind the same cause. So the revolutionary armies and the royalist
armies under Iturbide combined forming the army of the three Guarantees. This army then marched towards mexico city
where it was greeted by a joyce papules shouting Viva Iturbide! Seeing the videranging support for the three
guarantees the Viceroy along with the few remaining people still loyal to Spain escaped
and with that the Empire of Mexico was proclaimed in 1821. Iturbide managed to achieve what 11 years
of senseless fighting didn’t. By compromising he manage to bring together
two main opposing factions and oust the Spanish. He was hailed all around Mexico and was given
the leadership role of the regency while a suitable Spanish or European nobel was searched
for. However no European noble wanted to take the
spot of Emperor of Mexico. (wait what why sounds like a great job, I
would take it) Well this was because back in Spain the victorious liberals manage to
become the defeated liberals with the Spanish Monarch regaining control. He then set out to campaign against any other
European nobled taking the Mexican throne and even had plans of invading Mexico himself. The Mexican regency had no choice but to appoint
a Mexican noble on the throne. And no Mexican noble was as famous or as well
regarded as Iturbide, so in 1822 allegedly against his wishes iturbide was crowned as
Emperor Agustín I of Mexico. Iturbide however was facing problems right
from the get go. For example the conservative leaning areas
in Mexico still abided by the now technically abolished casta system and the proclaimed
equality of the three guarantees wasn’t really much existent. Iturbide tried doing something against this
but that only lost him support with the hardline conservatives which wanted the casta system,
on top of that he also lost support with the royalists as they wanted a normal monarchy
not a constitutional one and also wanted a european Monarch not a Mexican one. On the other side of the political spectrum
Iturbide was hated by the republicans for well existing as they wanted a republic not
monarchy. Plus they thought he wasn’t doing enough
to enforce the abolishment of the casta system. To add to all these problems Iturbide even
though a skilled general proved not to be a skilled administrator or a politician. Due to all this just a year later in 1823
the Republicans managed to gain control and the sad and dimorelized Iturbide abdicated
after which he was exiled by the republicans. When Iturbide was leaving the country it was
still very clear that even though the far right and far left hated him he was still
loved by the majority of the country. People gathered around his coach as he was
leaving and even insisted on pushing it themselves instead of the horses. When he came to the coast he left for Italy. During his exile the situation in Mexico worsen. The conservatives and royalists where in an
uproar as the republicans were in control. The republicans themselves were divided unable
to create a cohesive governmental body that would succeed the Empire and the southern
states of Mexico proclaimed independence creating the united provinces of central america. On top of all this the lower classes and the
far right liberals which up until now where mostly controlled by the higher classes which
where mostly wealthy conservative Peninsulares, started to actively barade and attack them. This meant that many wealthy Peninsulares
and even some Criollos started to leave for europe taking their wealth with them. This wealth drain would continue for most
of the 19th century and arguably Mexico would never recover from it. In all this chaos the royalists convince Iturbide
to return to Mexico and restore order. He did in 1824 but the wavering royalist party
along with many of the people that would support him now leaving to Europe meant that he wasn’t
able to garner much political support and power. None the less he was still loved by the majority
of the people and the republicans basically in a panic fearing an Iturbide takeover ordered
his execution. Iturbide probably sick of fighting and not
wanting to cause another war which could destroy Mexico even more, surrendered peacefully. Many people called him incompetent, corrupt,
dictatorial, etc. and even though those words usually where well founded, he always tried
putting Mexico first, for better or for worse. His last words before a firing squad where,
“Mexicans! In the very act of my death, I recommend to
you the love to the fatherland, and the observance to our religion, for it shall lead you to
glory. I die having come here to help you, and I
die merrily, for I die amongst you. I die with honor, not as a traitor; I do not
leave this stain on my children and my legacy. I am not a traitor, no.” Even after his death he was admired and respected
by most Mexicans and his life and demise represented perfectly the dichotomy of Mexican politics
for the next 100 years. With Mexico and its people going back and
forth between dictators and monarchs and republics. That is where I will end this video as it
is already very long, I hope you enjoyed it and I hope you’re enjoying the whole Project
Revolution it was a blast to make and work with all these history youtubers. If you want to continue to the next video
in colab let me point you towards House of History video about the Boxer Rebellion
And the video prior to mine in the colab is by Useful Charts about the monarchies involved
in the French Revolution. My name is M.Laser and If you liked my video
subscribe and stick around for history.

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  1. The whole video was awesome but I found most interesting that bit around 3:36 about the Aztec nobility getting assimilated into the Spanish one. I'm guessing it includes or maybe even especially refers to the other than Mexica Nahuatl-speaking groups, particularly the Tlaxcalans, who resisted incorporation into the Aztec Empire and were the chief native allies of Cortes.

  2. The picture you chose to represent the liberal revolution in Spain/the Spanish liberals ( e.g.: 15:58 ) is actually the proclamation of Idependence of Brazil, by Emperor Pedro I, in 1822….

  3. Interesting video

    As a Mexican history buff and Youtube historian I have to say this video is a pretty good intro to such a complex topic; nevertheless I want to make the next observations:

    1. Indios is a plural noun, so some of your uses of the word are incorrect.

    2. The main labor force during all the Colonial period in new Spain were indios, as Mestizos were never that abundant. Most of the Mestizaje in present day Mexico took place after independence

    3. Slavery in New Spain was largely avoided due the prices of slaves, and native labor was pretty cheap. So slaves in New Spain were mostly domestic servants and miners (because mining was the only industry that could afford those kind of workers and most indios avoided the mines whenever they could).

    4. The Mexican inquistion was not focused on the conversion native peoples, but rather on keeping an eye on the Peninsulares and their private lives.

    5. Guadalupe is pronounced Wa-da-loo-peh and Aranjuez is pronounced Are-an-who-ez 🙂

    6. Hidalgo's decision to not siege Mexico City seems to have been born from the massacre at Guanajuato, where his peasant army slaughtered the criollos, including those who were actually sympathetic to the independence/autonomy cause

    7. You left out the campaign and political work of Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon, who actually drafted the first Mexican constitution and established the first Mexican Congress.

    8. Guerrero did a lot more than just joining forces with Iturbide, as he was the main insurgent leader after the fall of Morelos. And O'Donojú, the last Spanish viceroy didn't leave Mexico, he actually tried to join the new regime, but he died shortly after.

    9. Also you didn't mention that the ones trying to defend slavery in Texas were American settlers in the province, and that Central America actually declared independence by herself, and later joined Mexico before separating for good.

    10. Most peninsulares didn't leave on their own volition. Most wanted to stay as they had all their properties, business and families in Mexico. They left because president Victoria issued an edict expelling them from the country in 1827.

    Nevertheless I appreciate your rescue of the figure of Iturbide, who has been really maligned by Mexican officialist narrative 🙂

    Also, I don't get why you used images of the Brazilian independence when talking about the Spanish Restoration. That was kinda weird.

    Lastly, I want to say that did enjoy the video as I don't see many videos on this topic around in English. Hope you keep the good work and if you want to talk about Mexico again, I would be honored to help you.


  4. The Virgin of Guadaloop. Lol. Just giving you a hard time. I enjoyed this video immensely. I consumed almost all videos on YouTube about Mexican history and none were as good as this. Thank you for your hard work. I'll be checking out your other videos soon.

  5. A similar agreement to the one in Mexico worked out in Brazil; in fact, our independence was even more conservative than that as slavery was kept unchanged for a half a century after it. But that was only doable due to the fact that the conservatives took charge of the independence process and we did have a Portuguese nobleman to put in the throne – in fact, the heir of the Portuguese throne himself. As for a Portuguese invasion, that wasn't a major threat after the whole of Brazil was put under the rule of the central government. That and the fact that the Portuguese court had moved to Brazil some fifteen years before, combined with the cohesion of the Brazilian elite against Portugal and the fact that there wasn't such a strong caste system in Brazil, also influenced why the plan of making a negotiated transition did work in Brazil, though. Also, our geography is probably easier to unite than Mexico's.

  6. Agustín de Iturbide, the man Mexico needed but didn't deserve. His nickname, the Iron Dragon, was not unfounded. He was a near military genius, and in reality, his administrative shortcomings have been significantly played up by his political opponents throughout history. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (yes, the same Santa Anna who lost to the US in the Mexican-American war) was one of the main men leading the uprising against Iturbide in 1823 in favour of a republic. Santa Anna would later in life admit that at the time, he had no idea what a republic actually was. His actual reasoning for rising up was that Iturbide had removed him from his position as customs-master of Veracruz, Mexico's largest and most important port, where Santa Anna had been embezzling and mismanaging the customs to a horrifying degree.

  7. I presume the yt algorythm doesnt like you. I subbed months ago (since your video on the austro hungarian navy) and didnt see you uploaded until i started cleaning my subs and remembered you exist.. And look at that, video uploaded two days ago that never showed up in my feed or daily digest.. Great video though and im glad i subbed.

  8. Interesting take on my country's independence. I do find there was too much emphasis on the "caste" system of which there is growing evidence was mostly anecdotal referring to race, but not when it came to access to power. It may be clearer when seen in the light of "Lex Soli" vs "Lex Sanguini" principles of nationality. If you were a peninsular you could access the higher echelons of power if you were not, well, you couldn't. Race has not been an issue in Mexico since the Catholic Queen, Isabel I declared Indians as "much loved subjects of the crown" in contrast with the genocide perpetrated by the British colonists who didn't even consider native Americans were even human. That being said, I get the need to keep attention of young people through humorous bits, but "The Bourbouns" depicted as a 6 pack of Tennesee whiskey? C'mon, that's almost cringe-worthy patronizing. On the other hand, the narrative stays well clear of official Mexican historic accounts that demonize Iturbide to this day, negating most of his true legacy. Overall, well done, thank you.

  9. Side note for any that might not know much about Mexican history-
    Honestly it’s quite a hassle trying to find the exact or definitive story of events. Mostly because there tends to be diverse or conflicting versions of what happened.

    Prime example the father of independence himself, all his portraits are fake. There were never any accurate portrait of him made while he was alive. All existing imagery is based from vague descriptions of him, or entirely made up.

    Also there are many instances where most of what was recorded in the books was actually written down a generation or 2 after the actual events had occurred. And like with the portraits, based from vague, sometimes subjective, recounts of the events.

    Anyways great video, summarizes the independence well.

  10. Facts 😭😭

    This is such a good video and a long awaited one for the entire history of youtube no video ever came close to describing this topic so good!!! Please do more mexican history videos!

  11. Holy smokes… and politics are complex….thanks for a video that's both educational, and interesting.
    A fascinating "what if"
    …..if Puerto Rico achieved independence prior to 1898, but Mexico didn't
    …Mexico was handed over via treaty to the USA after the Spanish American War, and then all Mexicans became U.S. citizens
    Of personal interest, because my paternal grandparents were born in Puerto Rico after 1898, but prior to U.S. citizenship in 1917
    Wonder what their citizenship was during that limbo period?

  12. As one who teaches history to Florida students, I will be recommending the first part of this video- where you explain some of the culture and the casta system, to anyone who wants to understand it in a few minutes. If you do re-edit parts of this video, then this first part, with a Florida history tag added to the description, would probably be a popular video. Either way, good info, thanks!

  13. I am from DOLORES. Brings tears to my eyes the courage of MIGUEL HIDALGO Y COSTILLA and the people from my city to fight off invaders !!

  14. Always wondered how North American History would have turned out of Mexico didn't destabilize itself and then plummit into Chaos

  15. Great video!!!! I'd love for you to come check out my new channel if you have the time! Great video again! -David 😄

  16. Was Belize ever part of the Mexican Empire? This map among a few others shows it as such, yet from what I know, British Honduras had been established long before then.

  17. Most mexicans dont even know many parts of our independence, mostly because of the PRI turning every book into propaganda so that we didn't that most of our history its just greed, incompetence and infighting. but Maximilian 😭

  18. Slavery was not abolished in Mexico until 1824, not like the video states, the 18th century , for more read this article and investigate a little better

  19. Hi , I like your video. Why dont you make a video about Spanish-American War in 1898 and cuban insurgents. You could make another video about Ogaden War (Ethiopia vs Somalia) and Soviet Union- Cuba intervention in the conflict.

  20. I wonder how mankind managed to survive so many centuries. with racism as the law + religions.
    and I find it somewhat sadly funny, too: those mixed race people clearly show that not even the most racist hombre can be racist enough 24/7. I mean, if you want that slave girl so much, she cannot be that inferior, can she?

  21. Mexican history is so rich that if history was valued as currency than Mexico would be a multi-billionaire and the USA would be a homeless bum.

  22. It was a great video, Mexico after the indepenece had to face a lot of problems: political division between conservadores and liberales that leads to civil wars and foregin intervation of France an USA.

    This lead to a lot of inestabilily, that was at least solve during the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz that last 30 years but the social unequality lead to the mexican revolution of 1910 after the revolution mexican get tired of fighting.

    Viva México 🇲🇽🇲🇽🇲🇽

  23. I find it funny how they just ousted the Spanish monarchy and only to look for another Spanish or European noble to rule than. I mean, my home country of Brazil kinda did the same, but at least we had been a official kingdom united to Portugal for 8 years before Independence and the Portuguese/European prince we chose to rule us has been raised in Brazil since he was 8, so he was more Brazilian than Portuguese.

  24. Really cool video, nice seing somebody does aknowledge mexican histoty in youtube. Keep up the good work

  25. It kinda bothers me you call it Revolution. We had a Mexican Revolution and it is totally different to the Independence war.

  26. Points to mention.
    1. Hidalgo most likely retreated because as you noted on point two, he fear mass pillaging, looting and killing , which was happening most of the time and his generals were concern with the non existing organization of the army that had allowed those acts which debilitated the movement, so much so that prominent General Ignacio Allende thought of killing HIdalgo. Also a major reason why Iturbide did not join the rebellion.
    2. When Iturbide was made Emperor the first congress instead trying to put out policies to organize the country, was planing to assassinate him, so he disbanded the congress once he heard of this, however the second congress did not help either, which negated him his abdication. He wanted to abdicate because he wanted the hostilities to end. Once Guerrero, Guadalupe Victoria, Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana swore allegiance and even were members of his government turn on him.
    3. Iturbide return to Mexico because he heard that Spain was planning to invade Mexico and he wanted help against the reconquista. In 1829 Spain sent an expedition force from cuba to Mexico how ever they were defeated. Note to mention the fortress of San Juan de Ulua In Veracruz was still control by Spain up until 1825. Mexico plan to take control of Cuba however in the battle of Mariel Mexico was defeated by Spain.

  27. Sup'… just as an FYI for all of you international viewers… on 6:16, it's supposed to sound "gwa-da-loo-pay" (Gua-da-lu-pe). If you visit Mexico, locals might not get what did you mean if you pronounce it as in the video. Once again, a tip of advice from a Mexican national. Excellent video btw!

  28. At 10.30 min, he says 100 000 men. Surely that is a slipup. It can't be that many at least not in a single army. It sounds rather unbelievable for an army in America

  29. Spain owned a lot…on paper. In reality the Comanche, Apache and rest of the Plains Indians truly ruled much of the North of the "Spanish" Empire.

  30. And I…GuadalOOP….

    Great video and I have always wondered what Mexico would have been if the Monarchies would have been left to prosper? Not convenient for the USA of course but Mexico's internal problems have always been terrible, up to today! It's fascinating how we had two Emperors in North America. Oh my Mexico, you would have been great and hopefully less violent. I have visited the tombs of both Emperor Agustin de Iturbide and Emperor Maximilian von Hapsburg. Such great legacies that are being rewritten to their formal glory as their stories have been stained by the opposing powers. But the truth always comes out! Hello from Mexico! Great video! Thank you! Could you do one of the Second Mexican Empire?! Cheers! Saludos!

  31. Now that would be good if you talk about the ambition of James Polk and the Manifest Destiny which impulsed U.S. to invade Mexico and take its northern lands, more than the half of its original territory. The oficial history says it was in great cause because of Texas, the truth is Texas was just a pretext among U.S. plans since the beginning. Mexico generously invited U.S. immigrants to populate Texas. They paid back Mexico by proclaiming independence of the Texas territory. The rest is precisely the invasion; Taylor from the north and Winfield Scott from the seas until entering to the very heart of Mexico City, The Chapultepec Castle. This Wicked War as professor Amy S. Greenberg call it, finally ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo with which the U.S. gained "by conquest" territories that now conforms the states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, part of Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas and Oklahoma.

  32. Glad your collection of youtubers decided to use a Spanish language narrator for a Mexican history video. Better than a lazy London England with a cotton mouthed accent getting the names and pronunciations wrong. Nice to hear native speaker speak well and articulate about that part of the world's history

  33. Texas as racists as always wanting slavery and while trying to kick out its rightful owners at the same time 😂 and now they wear our cowboy culture as if it was there’s.

  34. This is great video! However as a mexican I noticed that there are a couple of mistakes.

    Frist of all, New Spain was not a colony but a viceroyalty. Viceroyalties are not the same as colonies, they were considered as an integral part of the crown (at least while the Hasburgs ruled Spain), one example of this is that the spaniards created a lot universities in all Latin America, there always shared their knowledge.

    The Hidalgo movement was NOT an independence movement (this is a mistake that many mexicans believe). The motto of Hidalgo was "Dead to the bad goverment, long live to Fernando VII (king of Spain)" The movement of Hidalgo just wanted to bring down the peninsular goverment so New Spain could be ruled by criollos but remain as part of the spaniard crown. Hidalgo not even pronounced word México.

    Not a mistake but I think is important to know that when Hidalgo take Guadalajara, he abolished slavery in 1810.

    Father Morelos was the one who actually proposed the independece of México with his book "Feelings of the Nation" and make the constitution of Apatzingán in 1814, that is considered the first mexican contitution. But at the end Morelos was captured and killed, afther his death mostly of the movement fell apart. Still he also did never said the word México.

    Itubide (Long live to the Emperor!) didnt do everythig by his own. Afther the victory of the liberals in Spain the conservatives and the chourch conspired together to make New Spain independen, this is know as the "Conspiracy of La Profesa" (Iturbide was part of this) and they choosed him as the man who will execute their plan.

    Also not a mistake but impotant to know. Itubide and Guerrero united their armies with the "Plan of Iguala", it was in that city where the mexican flag was created and the name of México was finally choosed for the new nation.

    Is amazing to find these types of videos, very few youtubers talk about México's history and Im happy that you make this great thing.

  35. ‪Following the controversial #MexicanIndependence numerous conflicts, mentioning any are continuing‬.

  36. Can you make your next video about the history/timeline of break away southern former Mexican states that became the United Provinces of Central America? Thanks!

  37. Ah yes, this was the core of my education as a Historian during my college degree, wish I had put more attention to this particular period rather than Mexico 19th and 20th Century.

  38. Your voice is rather monotone. I think this video could have been more engaging if your delivery was a bit more enthusiastic.

  39. M. Laser History, I recommend a super interesting video topic involving Latin America, the Spanish, the British and even prerevolution USA all in one…the war of Jenkins ear.
    It includes one of the largest amphibious invations in history, the brother of George Washington, and a guy who was missing an eye an arm and a leg.
    And it's a piece of epic history that is virtually unknown.

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