The New “Bill Of Rights of Information Society”
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The New “Bill Of Rights of Information Society”

August 27, 2019

MALE SPEAKER: It’s great
to have Raj Reddy here. Now, I was doing a Google search
of all things, and I came across an interesting
fact. In 2004, Gross, Politzer and
Wilczek won the Nobel Prize in physics for the work on
strong force that binds quarks together. Now, I also discovered that Raj
Reddy had nothing to do with that group, and he
has never won the Nobel prize in physics. Although he has won just about
every prize in computer science that counts, including
the most important one, The Turing award, as well as the
Okawa prize, the Honda prize and the French Legion
of Honor award. Now, so why did I mention that
stuff about the quarks? It’s because I personally have
this theory that Raj is the strong force that binds
together the computer science community. And more than anybody else, I
think he’s the one who has tried to make computer science
get out into the lives of people in the developing world
and help them, and help us, help bring computing
and communication technology to them. He has also run the
world’s premier robotics lab for two decades. and the decade after that, he
ran one of the world’s premier computer science departments
at CUM. I’m from Berkeley, so I have to
say one of rather than the. He’s the founder of the PCtvt
project, which I’m sure he’ll tell you about, and the
Million Book Project. And for the Million Book
Project, he was the first, and I believe only, person in the
history of the world to get the presidents of India and
China to write a letter and put their signature on the same
letter to get them to agree to a project. So he is truly an irresistible
force, and we’re glad to have him on our side. And we’re happy to welcome
him to Google. RAJ REDDY: Thank you Peter. So I’m not sure I need
the microphone, but it’s kind of noisy. I’ll try to use it. So the talk today is not about
the emerging world or Million Book or a number of
other things we could have talked about. But I came here with
a mission. The mission I have is, Google
is not doing enough of our organizing the information
about the world. And there are lots of things
you’re leaving behind, and I want to tell you about them. And then hope that some of you,
the younger generation, will actually pick them up and
transform the way we access and use information. So this particular talk was
inspired by my colleague, Carbonell, Jaime Carbonell,
who is the head of the Language Technologies Institute,
is one of the leading figures in language
processing. For those of you don’t know
ancient history, the first web crawler and search engine was
built by one Jaime’s students, Fuzzy Malden, called Lycos. The rest is history
as they say. And that was in 1994. And so one of the things that
Jaime said was when he was trying to explain to someone
what is the purpose of the Language Technologies Institute,
what will it do or what does it do? He said it is to provide the
right information to the right people in the right timeframe
in the right language in the right level of granularity. And he had a few other rights,
which over the period of time we jokingly used to call the
bill of rights of the information society. But I kept thinking about it,
and I would bug him and say, why aren’t you doing all the
research that needs to be done in this thing? He says, that’s too big. We don’t have enough money
to do all the things. Not even Google has all the
money to the all the things. So the important issue is that
when you look at the world’s information with this prism and
say, what does it mean in the first place? What research has to be
done to get there, and will we ever get there? And if you do, how will we
know whether we have succeeded or not? So this is the challenge. And so I don’t think
I have the answer. I don’t even think I’ll
be presenting all the facets of it. The purpose of my coming here
and in giving this talk is to stimulate each of you and
perhaps even have a dialogue. I don’t think we can in this
kind of forum, but we might have a dialogue afterwards. If you come to Carnegie Mellon,
which is right next door here, Carnegie Mellow West
in the Nasa park, we can have a brainstorming session. So that’s the purpose
of this talk. And there are more
than five here. You have the right information
to the right people at the right time, in the right
language, in the right level of detail, in the
right medium. And the last one is an issue
that’s very important if you happen to be an illiterate
person in a village. You don’t how to
read or write. Especially, you don’t know
anything about English. And so you better be able to
provide the information I’m looking for in my local
language, but more importantly using audio and video,
not text, OK? And so the right medium also
becomes an important part of the research agenda that
one needs to look at. OK, so as soon as you use
those words, they imply certain kinds of research,
search engines, classification of information into the right
chunks and right formats, and right timeframe and support
for the analysis. Machine translation,
summarization, speech input output, all of these things,
or video input output too. But they’re part of
the solution, but not the entire solution. The right information just
doesn’t mean searching something and displaying a list
of all the possibilities. In the end, it may be the right
information without clutter, right? And the question of how do
you get only the right information, not everything else
under the sun perhaps, may be one way of
looking at it. And another way of saying it is,
if you’re a kid going to school, the right information
to you is knowing about the things that were discussed
in the class today. Or if you’re about to get
married, knowing the information where to get all the
relevant wedding planners and all kinds of the things
or solutions for that particular situation. So the right information has
many contexts and many connotations to different people
at different times. So the right is very difficult
to define, I’m finding. And I don’t what the right
answer is, but I’m just giving you examples of this. The right people is again
something that you can define. If you’re about to get hit by
a tsunami, it doesn’t matter if you broadcast it to the whole
country of Thailand. It’s the people on the shore
that are sun bathing or fishing or something that are
going to be impacted. They are the ones that need
to get the information. And by the way, they don’t have days or hours or something. And furthermore, it is a push
technology, not a pull technology. So you have to be able to figure
out, how do you get the information to them in ways
that are not usually done where I go and type in, is
there a tsunami coming? And then it tells you
something about it. So there are lots of very
complicated, complex issues that this set of rights that
Jaime Carbonell proposed seemed to raise. And we don’t yet have
as a community– language processing techniques
community– don’t have a broad research
agenda that covers the whole spectrum of these issues. That’s the thesis of
my talk basically. So now what I’ll try to do is
take you through quickly what we are doing at CMU, which is
less than, as I was telling my colleague, less than 5% of
what we need to be doing. And that’s rightfully so because
we don’t have the resources to do everything
that needs to done. So in search engines, the right
information from the future search engines. How to go beyond the just
relevance to query and popularity I’ll talk about
a little bit more. A second issue is eliminating
massive redundancy. For example, if you, say, type
into Google, “web-based email,” it should not result
in links to various Yahoo sites promoting their email,
not even non-Yahoo site discussing just Yahoo email. What it should just say is link
to Yahoo email, Gmail, MSN mail, a comparison
between them perhaps. That’s much more what we call
relevance rather than a massive redundancy
into the thing. The second issue is harder to
do, and we need to somehow organize the world’s information
this way. What information is trusted, and
what information is just pure marketing, and what
information is snake oil? Unfortunately, the
web-publishing paradigm permits all of them to
have equal weight. So we need to figure out how to
begin to go towards trusted information sources. At one point, I proposed to my
friend, Bob Kahn, who is one of the inventors of the IP
protocol and the internet, that maybe we should have
a Triple A web– authentic, archival and always
available information. So how do you make sure
it’s authentic? That means you have to register
your information with some trusted society. Maybe Google could set
up such a thing. You submit your information. You get a check sum
or something. And then every time you access
this information, if you changed anything, it’ll say, no,
it’s not authentic anymore but some other information. You’re not getting the original information that is certified. So if anybody had changed it,
including yourself, then it’s no longer the original
information that was certified or trusted. This is where the peer
reviewed journals are different than web sources
of information. And peer review journals
cannot be changed. They are printed and published,
and they are reviewed, and somebody certifies
that this is high-quality material. And then it is there forever
in that form. They may be wrong or right. It doesn’t matter, it’s
there, right? So we don’t have trusted
sources of information at this point. So I’ll talk about these three
subjects, maximum marginal relevance, and novelty detection
and named entity extraction as three narrow
topics within this right information, which is
what we are doing. So most query systems simply
retrieve everything that’s relevant to the keywords
that you type. Sometimes, that’s not enough. Things like novelty, timeliness,
appropriateness, validity, comprehensibility,
density, medium– all kinds of things might be
also appropriate rathen than just purely relevance
to the thing. Novelty is non-redundancy if
you want to call it that. If there are 20 different hits
or 100 hits that are more or less saying the same thing
from different sources at different newspapers at
different locations, you ought to be able to say, that’s
all one thing. But let me give you five
things that are really different from each other. And that would be a desirable
outcome for the search engine. So and there is more
detail here. I don’t want to go into the
detail, but I think you understand. So if you have a large number
of things in the central cluster there, and there lots of
outliers, you want to pick one out of each of those
countries and present that because then it’ll be maximally
non-redudant, right? And that’s what you’re
looking for. So novelty detection is another
idea that’s usually relevant in newspaper stories. Usually, one of the things that
happens in newspapers is out of the blue, a word
“Katrina” appears. It was never there in the
vocabulary before, and suddenly it takes on a
meaning of its own. It goes on and on and on. For a few days or a few weeks
it’s the top story. And then it slowly goes away. And it hasn’t got away yet, but
it will one of these days. So the detecting of a new event
turns out to be a an important aspect of getting
the right information available in ways it
is not otherwise. Then there is a whole set of
issues about how you do that, cosine similarity, tfidf and
things like that are examples of how you might do this. And so there are issues on how
you do the first story detection, FSD sometimes
it’s called. And then categorize these
topics, these words into topics, and then see if these
terms are maximally differentiating in the topics. And the second way of doing this
is to use situated named entities like “Sharon
as a peacemaker.” So link detection is– once you have the first story,
you have detected it. Now you need to track it
over a period of time. Why is this important? It turns out that at any one
point in time when you look at a story like the number of
people that died in Katrina– on day one it might
say seven people. On day 17, it might
say 3,000 people. And then it maybe goes down or
up just like the World Trade Center, and the total number of
people that actually died changes every day. So if you were trying to find
out a fact of how many people died in Katrina or the World
Trade Center disaster, you can’t simply pick one
of those things and present all of them. You need to find a way of
summarizing or finding the final number. And sometimes it’s called
non-monotonic reasoning where what was true one day becomes
not true the following day. And that becomes not
true the next day. At some point, it stabilizes,
and you know a fact. And at some point,
it disappears. You no longer have
that fact, right? So this become an interesting
set of issues. Another problem that occurs in
language processing of this kind is named entity
extraction. And this is important for the
usual query type systems. Who was mentioned, for example? Peter was talking about the
Okawa prize or Honda prize. When I got it, I didn’t
know what this prize. I got a letter saying you’ve
been selected. I said, what is this prize? I’ve never heard this before. But it turns out to be a very
important prize in Japan, but here in the USA, we never
hear about it as much. So finding these things like
who was mentioned, what locations, what companies, what
products, turns out to be an important aspect of finding
the right information. So here is a story. And what you are trying
to do is named entity identification. And there are a lot of names,
and there are a lot of roles they are playing. And the issue is, can we have
a system which identifies different named entities and the
relationships to each of them between what it is that
they’re doing and how they’re doing it. And so if you count,
there are many new techniques for doing it. And the finite-state transducers
and statistical learning techniques
are two of many. So here are the people that were
mentioned in that story, Clinton, Kantor, Peng,
Suzuki, Langford and so on, and places. How did you know these were
people, and how did you know these were places? And it turns out this
is not a big deal. Once you have this thing
categorized in your knowledge base and with appropriate
labels, you can do this. But you don’t always have all
the relevant information. You may come across a name that
you’ve never seen before or a name of a place that you’ve
never seen before, and it’s not uncommon for many of
us, when presented with a foreign name, to know whether
it’s man or a woman. And many times, we make the
mistake of calling he a she when the opposite is
actually true. So the roles that they
play turns out to be important also. You wanted to say, who
participated in this meeting? Who is the host country? Or who was the host? What was discussed? Who was absent at
this meeting? These kinds of questions
come up all the time. And it is not exactly
stated in the story. It is not explicitly there. You have to infer it from the
meaning of the language. Most of us don’t have any
problem inferring those relationships, but systems do. So there are a number
of emerging methods. And here there is “who does
what to whom” relation extraction problem. And this is very useful if
you’re going from unstructured data to semi-structured data
like in a database sense. If you wanted to organize the
information into your table, then you need certain tools
of going from unstructured information to structured
information or semi-structured. So those give you two or three
topics that we are working on at CMU, named entity extraction,
novelty detection, first story detection
and maximal relevance, marginal relevance. So the next topic is “the right
people.” Again, “the right people” is a very
complicated phrase to define. If a seven year old is working
on a school project, and he or she searches for “heart care” or
“heart attack” or whatever, then the kind of stories you
might want to retrieve for this right person would be very
different than if you’re a doctor and asking
the same question. So each person, based on their
context and situation and so on, needs to be provided with
a very different set of information. Once you see the example,
it’s obvious. But the issue of how the
system or individuals– in other words people, how would
they know what the right information is? And most of us have the benefit
of knowing this person is doctor and that
person is a kid. And therefore, you might be
able to provide the right information, but it’s
not always obvious. And then, there’s a whole set
of other affiliations that also force you to select or
sub-select information in a particular way. If you’re a family group or
an organization group or stockholder group or whatever,
then the information that you’ll be looking for him and
you might be provided would be very different from
each other. So the right people,
right information to the right people– and so the basic tool that seems
to be needed here is to somehow, given a text,
classifying it, categorizing it, and saying what is
this about and how does it group together? Is it for a kid potentially? Or is it for an expert? And in-between? So there may be many different
ways you would organize this information. And those ways of organizing
information is not in the content. You can;t search for it. It’s inferred information,
and that’s where the complexity comes in. So categorization, Yahoo for a
long time, in the beginning, used to do manual assignment
of categories. And Reuters, for example,
used for a long time hand-quoted rules. And a lot of the rest of us use
various machine learning techniques, and they’re
getting more and more sophisticated as we go on. And then the issue of whether
you can do a hierarchical event classification becomes
an interesting issue. So the right timeframe. Now, I used to think right
timeframe is, as soon as you know the information,
send it to me. That turns out to be
the wrong strategy. I only want the information when
I want it, just in time information. If you send it well in advance,
it’ll sit there and I’ll even lose it. That’s the trouble with
our education today. You go to college, and you are
taught calculus because 30 years later you might need it. By that time, you have forgotten
it so you have to go back and relearn it. So if I have to relearn it, why
don’t you just teach me calculus in one week instead of
one year, and then say, if and when you need it, go to
Wikipedia or something and you’ll learn the rest. Or, here
is a learning by doing method or learning calculus,
and you can learn it when you need it. So that’s the just in time
information being provided well in advance of when
you might need it. But this is not just
that type of thing. All of us get information
about a seminar or about something I’m supposed to do
two, three weeks in advance. If you’re like me, which you
probably are, you’re probably being bombarded with hundreds
of emails every day. And you just cannot
keep up with it. My senior colleague, and the
only Nobel prize winner in our field, Herb Simon, the late
Herb Simon, used to say we have the wealth of
information but scarcity of human attention. We don’t have enough lifetimes,
and as human beings, don’t follow
Moore’s Law, right? Our capacity has been constant
for the last thousands of years, and it’s not going to
change any time soon purely by evolutionary means. So the right timeframe– defining it even becomes
a very difficult issue. So getting the information to
the user exactly when it is needed, immediately when it is
requested, prepositioned this whole issue of anticipatory
information. So for example, one of the areas
of research some faculty members have studied at
CMU is what is called anticipatory computing. We cache results all the time. Computers were designed going
back to the ’60’s, the [? Strech for example, would
pre-compute lots of things and then pick one of
the right ones. And that type of caching of
the results is common in computer science. So the issue is if I know there
are only 40 things I can do and 38 of them are trivial
and can be done instantaneously, two of them
require search or something that may take a minute of time,
and I don’t want you to wait a minute, you could
pre-compute it. But you don’t present it. You pre-compute it
and you keep it. And when I ask for it, you
then give it to me. So that’s the issue here. So things like push
technologies, alerts, and reminders and breaking
news, are also often considered harmful. Just because the Steelers won
the Super Bowl, I don’t need to know it the instant that a
certain event has happened in the Super Bowl. I may be in the middle
of a meeting. I don’t want the alert
at that point. And if and when I am ready
to get it, I should be able to see it. So there is a whole set of
things that alerts are not always the right things to do,
and that becomes an important part of the right information. The right language, there
are lots of– at CMU and many other places,
including Google– there are a lot of language
translation tools and techniques. And unfortunately, all of them
tend to be not that good. And it’s a hard problem. It’s been a hard problem. It’ll continue to be a problem,
but there’s a lot that is known about how
to deal with it. And so one of the reasons
you might want to do the translation is for multilingual
search. There it doesn’t matter if the
translation is not perfect because you’re not asking
the people to read the translation. It’s mainly being used as a way
of indexing and to various materials such as trans-lingual
research, language identification. Language identification
turns out to be a very interesting problem. One of the things we’re working
on is this Million Book digital library
project, right? That is well before Google
print going back to five years ago. But China and India are partners
US in this project, and they are doing
the scanning. And they enter all
the meta-data. And the scanning is done by high
school graduates at not minimum wage, at some wage
that I don’t know about because the government
of China and India are paying for it. And I was looking at one book. It was obviously a French title,
but the guy didn’t know that and typed it in
and said German. I said, how could you
be so stupid? How could you make
such a mistake? So this young man was obviously
super bright, who should be hired by Google, came
to me and brought me a couple of books. And one of them was in Gujariti
and another one was in Marathi. So it happens that even though
I’m from India, I don’t know either of those languages. I couldn’t tell the difference
between the two. So he says, you’re a PhD, you
should know this, right? I said, sorry, you’re right. So it turns out that just
because you’re educated or literate, it doesn’t mean you
know all the languages and you know all the scripts. But it’s a very simple
problem. All that you need to see are one
or two words to the title, and then you can tell, most of
the time, what language it is. It is a sparse language machine
learning problem. Most people that do language
detection go and look at a whole page of text and then
do a frequency count. And then say, oh, this
is this language. That’s an easy problem. The hard problem is, supposing I
only give you three words of the title, can you tell
what language it is? Turns out you can. It requires a little
bit more work. So there’s the issue of regular
translation like the one that you can get
from Google. And there’s also what we called
reading assistant or on-demand translation. Let us say you know a little bit
of Italian but not a lot. And you are starting to read,
but you come up against, in an email, some word or phrase that
you don’t understand. You should be able to just
select it and get immediately a translation, but one that
is much better than simple translation because now
it’s in context. So most of us have this problem,
especially if you’re a non-native English speaking
speaker and you come across a word or a phrase, or even if
you’re an English speaking native speaker. If you’re reading Shakespeare,
and there are lots of phases there that are not used by us
today, and you need to be able to have a translation
assistant or reading assistance which will
give you that. It’s an interesting sub-problem
to solve and can be solved for all the
different languages. Transliteration also turns out
to be an important problem in the right language because
many languages have different scripts. So it is very interesting,
especially coming from India. It turns out, in India, the
sounds of all these languages are the same no matter
what language, but the letters are different. But in Europe, the letters
are the same, but the sounds are different. So when Unicode was invented by
the people in Xerox PARC, they thought in all the world,
all you had to do was make sure that for the same letter,
no matter in what language it is, you have the same
8-bit code or whatever out of the 16-bit. But that turned out to be
exactly the wrong thing for Indian languages. You want to be able to say, no
matter what language, it is ka or ke or whatever the syllable
happens to be. And that’s not easily
identifiable in the Unicode system as it’s currently done. OK, so there are lots of issues
on right language. There are many different
techniques that have been tried, statistical translation,
knowledge-based translation, example-based
translation. I’m not going to give you a
tutorial on all of these, and you can quickly find
out about them. Where things are going now is
these so called multi-engine machine translation. It turns out no one of these
techniques is perfect. They work some of the time. They don’t work other times. So rather than depending on the
best technique using only one, you say, can you actually
build a hybrid system that gets translations from all of
them, and then figure out how to use them. That’s the multi-engine machine
translation, and here is an example of different kinds
of translation, EBMT and semantic, sentence, syntactic
[INAUDIBLE] and so on. So here is an EBMT example,
example-based machine translation. And multi-engine translation. I won’t go through
all of this. You get three different
translations, and it turns out you need to figure
out of a way of selecting the right ones. That itself turns out to
be a hard problem. How do you know this is the
right set of things? And that is determined by
looking at the naturalness of the sentences. There are ways– if you have ever worked on
natural language generation as opposed to analysis, this is
one of the issues that you spend time on. OK, what we can do
in new languages. What we cannot do yet is an
important set of things. And at CMU we work on what we
call orphan languages, obscure language that Google may not
be interested in or most commercial organizations would
not be interested in. The reason we work on these
is we get funded by DARPA. DARPA wants to know how to
translate Pushtu into English or Swahili or some
other language. And that’s not something that
you would normally consider as a research topic. OK, the next interesting aspect
of Bill of Rights is the right level of detail. And there a number of aspects of
level of detail, and I will present some of them here. One of them is this issue of if
you have a document, if I have a report that came up on a
Google search, and I want to read it, I don’t really
have the time to go through 300 pages. If there was an automatic
summarization technology that would produce a summary for me,
that would be very useful. And there are such tools
and techniques. They’re not good,
but they’re OK. And people stop at that point. It’s really not adequate. What you need is a hierarchical
summarization. You need a one line statement, a
headline saying, what is his book about? And you need a paragraph, an
abstract or something, and an executive summary, and
a regular summary. And so you can have four or five
levels of detail of the same document. And so one way we characterize
it is we say, 10 word summary, 100 word summary, 1,000
word summary, a 10,000 word summary. And so information structuring
here is not 10 words. It’s 20 I guess. Headline, abstract, summary
and document. And the scope of the summary
can also be different in different places. You can see what
the issues are. And this two by two matrix is
very illustrative of the kind of problems that you run into. One of them is when you just go
do genetic query like you do on Google. And there, if you’re asking
the question, do I want to read any further? What you want is a short
abstract in the right column, query-free. And if I want a summary where I
don’t have the time to read a 100 page book or a 300 page
book, give me a summary of 10 pages or 20 pages, then those
are the executive summaries. But neither of them are
appropriate if you’re actually looking for a highly focused
response to a question where you, say, want to filter the
search engine results by clustering them or grouping them
to determine whether you want to read any
further at all. And the query element
summarization for busy people is, I don’t want to
read this article. I want an answer. And it turns out– I used to think this was only
important for busy people– it’s also relevant to an illiterate person in a village. So if this person goes to a
computer or pays somebody to do a search for him and
says, I have AIDS. What do I do? What they don’t want is 10,000
or 100,000 links to AIDS related articles. They are not competent to read
and summarize and analyze and integrate the information
that is there. They are illiterate,
or semi-literate. So what you want is something
that will actually understand that knowledge and say,
oh, you have AIDS? You need this cocktail. And then you say, where
do I get it? And you get another answer. So it turns out the kinds of
information that’s needed when you query a highly focused
requirement, is essentially you want the computer to
solve the problem. And so some of the types of
work that Ask Jeeves and others tried to do earlier
is related to this. And I think Google Answers
might be related to it. For whatever reason, Google
Answers has never taken off, or at least I haven’t seen a
lot of buzz about it, but probably people use it still. So maybe if we remove the cost
angle, it’ll be more successful. But solving problems is
different than just providing information. One of this is passive
knowledge, and the other one is active knowledge, right? So in the right medium. finding information and
providing information in non-textual media turns out
to be very important also. And there are a number of
research issues in these areas that many of us are
working on. I’m sure there may
be work here too. So, in conclusion, the purpose
of this presentation was to highlight the kind of research
problems and concerns some of us in academia are
grappling with. No doubt, there are people at
Google research and Google engineering that are also
working on these problems. And the issue is, how do we make
substantial progress? And the only way that will
happen, I think, is for us to begin to have professional
conferences in each of these topics, maybe organized
by Google. A one day or two day or three
day symposium that will actually bring all the people
working in this thing in a public disclosure, without
having to send an NDA or something, where you can
actually present the ideas and go forward. And that’s one of the things I
think we need, especially in areas where things are still
very fuzzy of what the right way of approaching
the problems are. Thank you. MALE SPEAKER: OK,
any questions? Comments? Otherwise we can
go have coffee. I had a question. You were talking about trying
to get some diversity of results that [INAUDIBLE] from the main cluster. AUDIENCE: But if you do that
without having some good [INAUDIBLE] capability, then
people lose the idea that most people are talking about this
thing in the middle, and all the fringe concepts are
considered the same way as the majority concepts. You need some way
to balance that. RAJ REDDY: So the way to look
at it is grouping together relevant sub-topics into
clusters doesn’t imply you have to throw away
the details. It might all be there. But it’s like Google
News does, right? It gives one headline, and one
may be the main story, and then it says 74 other stories. And so if somebody wants to
see how the same story was reported in multiple different
locations, you can get it. But the interesting thing is
in that scenario, we never have the patience or time to
go read all the 74 stories. What I would like to see are
those three stories that provide a completely different perspectives of the same story. You take any of these stories
when there are controversies in Israeli or Palestinian
newspapers, the same story will have a very different
way of presentation. And that’s not just there. It can be between here and
Mexico, it can be any place where there are differences
of opinion. Between Google and Microsoft,
the same story would be reported slightly differently. And what I want to see are those
specific differences. In what way are they
different? Because I don’t have the time
to read hundreds of pages to figure out for me what
the differences are. If I had a human assistant, I’d
say, you go figure it out and tell me what the
differences are. And what we’re looking for is
the equivalent of [INAUDIBLE]. MALE SPEAKER: OK, thank you.

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