After the third attempt to invade Medina,
the Polytheist realized it was not possible for them, even unitedly, to seize Medina.
In 628 C.E., the Messenger of the God and Muslims decided to perform Hajj.
It was against the social norm of Mecca, to prevent anyone from performing Hajj, even
their enemies. The Messenger of the God, with 1,400 Muslims, began a month long journey
towards Mecca, wearing the dress of Hajj: 2 piece of unsown white cloth. The Muslims
had with them, little provision for their journey, and their sacrificial animal. When
The Meccan Polytheists learnt about this journey, they sent 200 soldiers to investigate. When
they were spying on the Muslims, they realized that the Muslims were here only to perform
Hajj. It was not an invasion. The Muslims were unarmed. When Muslims realized that soldiers
have been sent against them, they changed their route and settled in Hudaibiyah. When
the soldiers returned, they explained the Polytheists about the situation, that the
Muslims are here only to perform Hajj. The Muslims did not have any weapon or armor.
So, the Meccan sent their leader and diplomats to Hudaibiyah, to negotiate with the Muslims.
This was a grand opportunity for the polytheists to eradicate their greatest enemies, unarmed
in the middle of the desert far from medina. The diplomats tried to intimidate the Muslims
to surrender, and threatened them with attack, and remind the Muslims that they were unarmed.
The Muslims refused to surrender, and tried to reason with them that they were only here
to perform hajj. When the Muslims refused to surrender, the diplomats attempted to break
the unity of the Muslims, but their attempts were in vain, and on the contrary the diplomats
got highly intimidated by the unity of the Muslims. The diplomats returned to their people,
and informed the Polytheists about the attitude of the Muslims, and about the situations,
that the Muslims are extremely united, and highly vigorous, and attacking Muslims in
this situation can lead us to an atrocious fate. In the meantime, the Muslims sent their
arbitrator Usman bin Affan to Mecca. Usman bin Affan, proposed the Polytheists to allow
the Muslims to perform Hajj, but the Polytheists rejected his proposal, and said that they
would only allow Usman bin Affan to perform the hajj, as he was already in Mecca, but
Usman bin Affan refused to perform hajj without his Muslim brothers. Meanwhile, rumors spread
that Usman bin Affan had been killed, and when the Muslims learnt about this, they all
swore to avenge the blood of Usman bin Affan, and decided to fight back with the Polytheists
with their small animal sacrificial knives. This is known as the Bayat ul Ridwaan. The
Muslims believed that the attack on one Muslim is attack on all Muslims. After Bayat ul Ridwaan,
Usman bin Affan returned, and the rumours were proven false. When the news of Bayat
ul Ridwaan reached the Mushrikun (the Polytheists) they sent an arbitrator to the Muslims to
negotiate with them. After a lot of argument they finally negotiated the following terms. 1. The Muslims shall not be allowed to perform
pilgrimage this year, and come back next year, but they shall not stay in Mecca for more
than three days. 2. They shall not come back armed, but can
bring with them small animal sacrificial knives, and it should be in the sheathe, in a bag.
3. War activities between the Muslims, and the Meccan Polytheists shall be suspended
for ten years, during which both parties will live in full security and neither will raise
sword against the other. 4. If anyone from Mecca converts to Islam,
and goes over to Medina to join the Muslims, without his guardian’s permission, he should
be sent back to Mecca, but should any of the Muslims from Medina, return to Mecca and convert
to Polytheism, then he shall not be sent back to Medina.
5. Whosoever wishes to join Muslims, or enter into treaty with the Muslims, should have
the liberty to do so; and likewise, whosoever wishes to join Meccan Polytheists, or enter
into treaty with them, should be allowed to do so.
This treaty is known as the Treaty of Hudaibiyah. After the treaty was signed, the Muslims returned
back to Medina without performing the Pilgrimage to Kaaba. After the treaty of Hudaibiyah, the Muslims
got a glorious opportunity to broadly, preach Islam. Therefore, masses entered into Islam
from the whole of Arabia, including Mecca. People who entered Islam, after the treaty
of Hudaibiyah from Mecca, were prevented from taking asylum in Medina. The Muslims of Medina,
were also helpless against the Hudaibiyah treaty. So, the helpless new Muslims from
Mecca, took refuge in Saif Al-Bahar, and they were considered fugitives by the Polytheists
of Mecca. These helpless Muslims, were living a life without any provision in the harsh
mountains and deserts of Arabia. They had left their properties in Mecca, which were
now seized by the Polytheists of Mecca. With time, the number of the fugitives Muslims
increased, and the Polytheists started to hunt these fugitive Muslims. Helplessly to
survive, the fugitive Muslims of the mountains, retaliated against the Polytheists of Mecca.
The fugitive Muslims won’t enter Mecca, or Medina, but would rob the caravans of Mecca
for survival, as they were not allowed to accept help, for provision from Medina. After
a while, these fugitives became unbearable for the Polytheists of Mecca, because Mecca
was a business state, and robbing their business caravans was causing great losses, in their
business. So, they contacted the Messenger of the God, and requested to annul the fourth
clause Of the Hudaibiyah Treaty. And the Fugitive Muslims were welcomed in Medina.