Treaty of Trianon | Wikipedia audio article
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Treaty of Trianon | Wikipedia audio article

October 8, 2019

The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement
of 1920 that formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the
Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary. The
treaty regulated the status of an independent Hungarian state and defined its borders. It
left Hungary as a landlocked state that covered 93,073 square kilometres (35,936 sq mi), only
28% of the 325,411 square kilometres (125,642 sq mi) that had constituted the pre-war Kingdom
of Hungary (the Hungarian half of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy). Its population was 7.6 million,
only 36% of the pre-war kingdom’s population of 20.9 million. The areas that were allocated
to neighbouring countries in total (and each of them separately) had a majority of non-Hungarians
but 31% of Hungarians (3.3 million) were left outside of post-Trianon Hungary. Five of the
pre-war kingdom’s ten largest cities were drawn into other countries. The treaty limited
Hungary’s army to 35,000 officers and men, and the Austro-Hungarian Navy ceased to exist.
The principal beneficiaries of territorial division of pre-war Kingdom of Hungary were
the Kingdom of Romania, the Czechoslovak Republic, and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. One of the
main elements of the treaty was the doctrine of “self-determination of peoples”, and it
was an attempt to give the non-Hungarians their own national states. In addition, Hungary
had to pay war reparations to its neighbours. The treaty was dictated by the Allies rather
than negotiated, and the Hungarians had no option but to accept its terms. The Hungarian
delegation signed the treaty under protest on 4 June 1920 at the Grand Trianon Palace
in Versailles, France. The treaty was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on 24 August
1921.The modern boundaries of Hungary are the same as those defined by the Treaty of
Trianon, with some minor modifications until 1924 and the notable exception of three villages
that were transferred to Czechoslovakia in 1947.==Borders of Hungary==The Hungarian government terminated its union
with Austria on 31 October 1918, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian state. The
de facto temporary borders of independent Hungary were defined by the ceasefire lines
in November–December 1918. Compared with the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary, these temporary
borders did not include: Part of Transylvania south of the Mureş river
and east of the Someş river, which came under the control of Romania (cease-fire agreement
of Belgrade signed on 13 November 1918). On 1 December 1918, the National Assembly of
Romanians in Transylvania declared union with the Kingdom of Romania.
Slovakia, which became part of Czechoslovakia (status quo set by the Czechoslovak legions
and accepted by the Entente on 25 November 1918). Afterwards the Slovak politician Milan
Hodža discussed with the Hungarian Minister of Defence, Albert Bartha, a temporary demarcation
line which had not followed the Slovak-Hungarian linguistic border, and left more than 900,000
Hungarians in the newly formed Czechoslovakia. That was signed on 6 December 1918.
South Slavic lands, which, after the war, were organised into two political formations
– the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and Banat, Bačka and Baranja, which both
came under control of South Slavs, according to the ceasefire agreement of Belgrade signed
on 13 November 1918. Previously, on 29 October 1918, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia parliament,
an autonomous kingdom within the Transleithania, terminated the union with the Kingdom of Hungary
and on 30 October 1918 the Hungarian diet adopted a motion declaring that the constitutional
relations between the two states had ended. Croatia-Slavonia was included in a newly formed
State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs (which also included some other South Slavic territories,
formerly administered by Austria-Hungary) on 29 October 1918. This state and the Kingdom
of Serbia formed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) on 1 December 1918.The
territories of Banat, Bačka and Baranja (which included most of the pre-war Hungarian counties
of Baranya, Bács-Bodrog, Torontál, and Temes) came under military control by the Kingdom
of Serbia and political control by local South Slavs. The Great People’s Assembly of Serbs,
Bunjevci, and other Slavs from Banat, Bačkam and Baranja declared union of this region
with Serbia on 25 November 1918. The ceasefire line had the character of a temporary international
border until the treaty. The central parts of Banat were later assigned to Romania, respecting
the wishes of Romanians from this area, which, on 1 December 1918, were present in the National
Assembly of Romanians in Alba Iulia, which voted for union with the Kingdom of Romania. The city of Fiume (Rijeka) was occupied by
the Italian nationalists group. Its affiliation was a matter of international dispute between
the Kingdom of Italy and Yugoslavia. Croatian-populated territories in modern Međimurje
remained under Hungarian control after the ceasefire agreement of Belgrade from 13 November
1918. After the military victory of Croatian forces led by Slavko Kvaternik in Međimurje
against Hungarian forces, this region voted in the Great Assembly of 9 January 1919 for
separation from Hungary and entry into Yugoslavia.After the Romanian Army advanced beyond this cease-fire
line, the Entente powers asked Hungary (Vix Note) to acknowledge the new Romanian territory
gains by a new line set along the Tisza river. Unable to reject these terms and unwilling
to accept them, the leaders of the Hungarian Democratic Republic resigned and the Communists
seized power. In spite of the country being under Allied blockade, the Hungarian Soviet
Republic was formed and the Hungarian Red Army was rapidly set up. This army was initially
successful against the Czechoslovak Legions, due to covert food and arms aid from Italy.
This made it possible for Hungary to reach nearly the former Galician (Polish) border,
thus separating the Czechoslovak and Romanian troops from each other.
After a Hungarian-Czechoslovak cease-fire signed on 1 July 1919, the Hungarian Red Army
left parts of Slovakia by 4 July, as the Entente powers promised to invite a Hungarian delegation
to the Versailles Peace Conference. In the end, this particular invitation was not issued.
Béla Kun, leader of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, then turned the Hungarian Red Army
on the Romanian Army and attacked at the Tisza river on 20 July 1919. After fierce fighting
that lasted some five days, the Hungarian Red Army collapsed. The Royal Romanian Army
marched into Budapest on 4 August 1919. The Hungarian state was restored by the Entente
powers, helping Admiral Horthy into power in November 1919. On 1 December 1919 the Hungarian
delegation was officially invited to the Versailles Peace Conference; however, the newly defined
borders of Hungary were nearly concluded without the presence of the Hungarians. During prior
negotiations, the Hungarian party, along with the Austrian, advocated the American principle
of self-determination: that the population of disputed territories should decide by free
plebiscite to which country they wished to belong. This view did not prevail for long,
as it was disregarded by the decisive French and British delegates. According to some opinions,
the Allies drafted the outline of the new frontiers with little or no regard to the
historical, cultural, ethnic, geographic, economic and strategic aspects of the region.
The Allies assigned territories that were mostly populated by non-Hungarian ethnicities
to successor states, but also allowed these states to absorb sizeable territories that
were mainly inhabited by Hungarian-speaking populations. For instance, Romania gained
all of Transylvania, which was home to 2,800,000 Romanians, but also contained a significant
minority of 1,600,000 Magyars and about 250,000 Germans. The intent of the Allies was principally
to strengthen these successor states at the expense of Hungary. Although the countries
that were the main beneficiaries of the treaty partially noted the issues, the Hungarian
delegates tried to draw attention to them. Their views were disregarded by the Allied
representatives. Some predominantly Hungarian settlements,
consisting of more than two million people, were situated in a typically 20–50 km (12–31
mi) wide strip along the new borders in foreign territory. More concentrated groups were found
in Czechoslovakia (parts of southern Slovakia), Yugoslavia (parts of northern Vojvodina),
and Romania (parts of Transylvania). The final borders of Hungary were defined
by the Treaty of Trianon signed on 4 June 1920. Beside exclusion of the previously mentioned
territories, they did not include: the rest of Transylvania, which together with
some additional parts of the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary became part of Romania;
Carpathian Ruthenia, which became part of Czechoslovakia, pursuant to the Treaty of
Saint-Germain in 1919; most of Burgenland, which became part of Austria,
also pursuant to the Treaty of Saint-Germain (the district of Sopron opted to remain within
Hungary after a plebiscite held in December 1921, the only place where a plebiscite was
held and factored in the decision); Međimurje and the 2/3 of the Slovene March
or Vendvidék (now Prekmurje), which became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.By
the Treaty of Trianon, the cities of Pécs, Mohács, Baja and Szigetvár, which were under
Serb-Croat-Slovene administration after November 1918, were assigned to Hungary. An arbitration
committee in 1920 assigned small northern parts of the former Árva and Szepes counties
of the Kingdom of Hungary with Polish majority population to Poland. After 1918, Hungary
did not have access to the sea, which pre-war Hungary formerly had directly through the
Rijeka coastline and indirectly through Croatia-Slavonia. With the help of Nazi Germany and Fascist
Italy, Hungary expanded its borders towards neighbouring countries at the outset of World
War II. This started under the Munich Agreement (1938), then the two Vienna Awards (1938 and
1940), and was continued with the dissolution of Czechoslovakia (occupation of northern
Carpathian Ruthenia and eastern Slovakia) and the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia. This
territorial expansion was short-lived, since the post-war Hungarian boundaries in the Paris
Peace Treaties, 1947 were nearly identical to those of 1920 (with three villages – Jarovce,
Rusovce, and Čunovo – transferred to Czechoslovakia). Representatives of small nations living in
the former Austria-Hungary and active in the Congress of Oppressed Nations regarded the
treaty of Trianon for being an act of historical righteousness because a better future for
their nations was “to be founded and durably assured on the firm basis of world democracy,
real and sovereign government by the people, and a universal alliance of the nations vested
with the authority of arbitration” while at the same time making a call for putting an
end to “the existing unbearable domination of one nation over the other” and making it
possible “for nations to organize their relations to each other on the basis of equal rights
and free conventions”. Furthermore, they believed the treaty would help toward a new era of
dependence on international law, the fraternity of nations, equal rights, and human liberty
as well as aid civilisation in the effort to free humanity from international violence.==Results and consequences of the Treaty
The 1910 census===The last census before the Treaty of Trianon
was held in 1910. This census recorded population by language and religion, but not by ethnicity.
However, it is generally accepted that the largest ethnic group in the Kingdom of Hungary
in this time were the Hungarians. According to the 1910 census, speakers of the Hungarian
language included approximately 48% of the entire population of the kingdom, and 54%
of the population of the territory referred to as “Hungary proper”, i.e. excluding Croatia-Slavonia.
Within the borders of “Hungary proper” numerous ethnic minorities were present: 16.1% Romanians,
10.5% Slovaks, 10.4% Germans, 2.5% Ruthenians, 2.5% Serbs and 8% others. 5% of the population
of “Hungary proper” were Jews, who were included in speakers of the Hungarian language. The
population of the autonomous Croatia-Slavonia was mostly composed of Croats and Serbs (who
together counted 87% of population).====Criticism of the 1910 census====
The census of 1910 classified the residents of the Kingdom of Hungary by their native
languages and religions, so it presents the preferred language of the individual, which
may or may not correspond to the individual’s ethnic identity. To make the situation even
more complex, in the multilingual kingdom there were territories with ethnically mixed
populations where people spoke two or even three languages natively. For example, in
the territory what is today Slovakia (then part of Upper Hungary) 18% of the Slovaks,
33% of the Hungarians and 65% of the Germans were bilingual. In addition, 21% of the Germans
spoke both Slovak and Hungarian beside German. These reasons are ground for debate about
the accuracy of the census. While several demographers (David W. Paul,
Peter Hanak, László Katus) state that the outcome of the census is reasonably accurate
(assuming that it is also properly interpreted), others believe that the 1910 census was manipulated
by exaggerating the percentage of the speakers of Hungarian, pointing to the discrepancy
between an improbably high growth of the Hungarian-speaking population and the decrease of percentual
participation of speakers of other languages due to Magyarization in the kingdom in the
late 19th century.For example, the 1921 census in Czechoslovakia (only one year after the
Treaty of Trianon) shows 21% Hungarians in Slovakia , compared to 30% based on 1910 census.
Some Slovak demographers (such as Ján Svetoň and Julius Mesaros) dispute the result of
every pre-war census. Owen Johnson, an American historian, accepts the numbers of the earlier
censuses up to the one in 1900, according to which the proportion of the Hungarians
was 51.4%, but he neglects the 1910 census as he thinks the changes since the last census
are too big. It is also argued that there were different results in previous censuses
in the Kingdom of Hungary and subsequent censuses in the new states. Considering the size of
discrepancies, some demographers are on the opinion that these censuses were somewhat
biased in the favour of the respective ruling nation.====Distribution of the non-Hungarian and
Hungarian populations====The number of non-Hungarian and Hungarian
communities in the different areas based on the census data of 1910 (in this, people were
not directly asked about their ethnicity, but about their native language). The present
day location of each area is given in parenthesis. According to another source, population distribution
in 1910 looked as follows:====Hungarians outside the newly defined
borders====The territories of the former Hungarian Kingdom
that were ceded by the treaty to neighbouring countries in total (and each of them separately)
had a majority of non-Hungarian nationals, however the Hungarian ethnic area was much
larger than the newly established territory of Hungary, therefore 30 percent of the ethnic
Hungarians were under foreign authority.After the treaty, the percentage and the absolute
number of all Hungarian populations outside of Hungary decreased in the next decades (although,
some of these populations also recorded temporary increase of the absolute population number).
There are several reasons for this population decrease, some of which were spontaneous assimilation
and certain state policies, like Slovakization, Romanianization, Serbianisation. Other important
factors were the Hungarian migration from the neighbouring states to Hungary or to some
western countries as well as decreased birth rate of Hungarian populations. According to
the National Office for Refugees, the number of Hungarians who immigrated to Hungary from
neighbouring countries was about 350,000 between 1918 and 1924.====Minorities in post-Trianon Hungary====
On the other hand, a considerable number of other nationalities remained within the frontiers
of the independent Hungary: According to the 1920 census 10.4% of the
population spoke one of the minority languages as mother language: 551,212 German (6.9%)
141,882 Slovak (1.8%) 36,858 Croatian (0.5%)
23,760 Romanian (0.3%) 23,228 Bunjevac and Šokac (0.3%)
17,131 Serbian (0.2%) 7,000 Slovene (0.08%)The percentage and the
absolute number of all non-Hungarian nationalities decreased in the next decades, although the
total population of the country increased. Bilingualism was also disappearing. The main
reasons of this process were both spontaneous assimilation and the deliberate Magyarization
policy of the state. Minorities made up 8% of the total population in 1930 and 7% in
1941 (on the post-Trianon territory).After World War II approximately 200,000 Germans
were deported to Germany, according to the decree of the Potsdam Conference. Under the
forced exchange of population between Czechoslovakia and Hungary, approximately 73,000 Slovaks
left Hungary and according to different estimations 120,500 or 45,000 Hungarians moved to present
day Hungarian territory from Czechoslovakia. After these population movements Hungary became
an almost ethnically homogeneous country with the exception of the Hungarian speaking Romani
people.===Political consequences===Officially the treaty was intended to be a
confirmation of the right of self-determination for nations and of the concept of nation-states
replacing the old multinational Austro-Hungarian empire. Although the treaty addressed some
nationality issues, it also sparked some new ones.
The minority ethnic groups of the pre-war kingdom were the major beneficiaries. The
Allies had explicitly committed themselves to the causes of the minority peoples of Austria-Hungary
late in World War I. For all intents and purposes, the death knell of the Austro-Hungarian empire
sounded on 14 October 1918, when United States Secretary of State Robert Lansing informed
Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister István Burián that autonomy for the nationalities
was no longer enough. Accordingly, the Allies assumed without question that the minority
ethnic groups of the pre-war kingdom wanted to leave Hungary. The Romanians joined their
ethnic brethren in Romania, while the Slovaks, Serbs and Croats helped establish nation-states
of their own (Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia). However, these new or enlarged countries also
absorbed large slices of territory with a majority of ethnic Hungarians or Hungarian
speaking population. As a result, as many as a third of Hungarian language-speakers
found themselves outside the borders of the post-Trianon Hungary.
While the territories that were now outside Hungary’s borders had non-Hungarian majorities
overall, there also existed some sizeable areas with a majority of Hungarians, largely
near the newly defined borders. Over the last century, concerns have occasionally been raised
about the treatment of these ethnic Hungarian communities in the neighbouring states. Areas
with significant Hungarian populations included the Székely Land in Eastern Transylvania,
the area along the newly defined Romanian-Hungarian border (cities of Arad, Oradea), the area
north of the newly defined Czechoslovakian–Hungarian border (Komárno, Csallóköz), southern parts
of Subcarpathia and northern parts of Vojvodina. The Allies rejected the idea of plebiscites
in the disputed areas with the exception of the city of Sopron, which voted in favour
of Hungary. The Allies were indifferent as to the exact line of the newly defined border
between Austria and Hungary. Furthermore, ethnically diverse Transylvania, with an overall
Romanian majority (53.8% – 1910 census data or 57.1% – 1919 census data or 57.3% – 1920
census data), was treated as a single entity at the peace negotiations and was assigned
in its entirety to Romania. The option of partition along ethnic lines as an alternative
was rejected. Another reason why the victorious Allies decided
to dissolve the Central-European great power, Austria-Hungary, a strong German supporter
and fast developing region, was to prevent Germany from acquiring substantial influence
in the future. The Western powers’ main priority was to prevent a resurgence of the German
Reich and they therefore decided that her allies in the region, Austria and Hungary,
should be “contained” by a ring of states friendly to the Allies, each of which would
be bigger than either Austria or Hungary. Compared to the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary,
post-Trianon Hungary had 60% less population and its political and economic footprint in
the region was significantly reduced. Hungary lost connection to strategic military and
economic infrastructure due to the concentric layout of the railway and road network which
the borders bisected. In addition, the structure of its economy collapsed, because it had relied
on other parts of the pre-war Kingdom. The country also lost access to the Mediterranean
and to the important sea port of Rijeka (Fiume), and became landlocked, which had a negative
effect on sea trading and strategic naval operations. Furthermore, many trading routes
that went through the newly defined borders from various parts of the pre-war kingdom
were abandoned. With regard to the ethnic issues, the Western
powers were aware of the problem posed by the presence of so many Hungarians (and Germans)
living outside the new nation-states of Hungary and Austria. The Romanian delegation to Versailles
feared in 1919 that the Allies were beginning to favour the partition of Transylvania along
ethnic lines to reduce the potential exodus and Prime Minister Ion I. C. Brătianu even
summoned British-born Queen Marie to France to strengthen their case. The Romanians had
suffered a higher relative casualty rate in the war than either Britain or France so it
was considered that the Western powers had a moral debt to repay. In absolute terms,
Romanian troops had considerably fewer casualties than either Britain or France, however. The
underlying reason for the decision was a secret pact between The Entente and Romania. In the
Treaty of Bucharest (1916) Romania was promised Transylvania and territories to the east of
river Tisza, provided that she attacked Austria-Hungary from the south-east, where defences were weak.
However, after the Central Powers had noticed the military manoeuvre, the attempt was quickly
choked off and Bucharest fell in the same year. By the time the victorious Allies arrived
in France, the treaty was already settled, which made the outcome inevitable. At the
heart of the dispute lay fundamentally different views on the nature of the Hungarian presence
in the disputed territories. For Hungarians, the outer territories were not seen as colonial
territories, but rather part of the core national territory. The non-Hungarians that lived in
the Pannonian Basin saw the Hungarians as colonial-style rulers who had oppressed the
Slavs and Romanians since 1848, when they introduced laws that the language used in
education and in local offices was to be Hungarian. For non-Hungarians from the Pannonian Basin
it was a process of decolonisation instead of a punitive dismemberment (as was seen by
the Hungarians). The Hungarians did not see it this way because the newly defined borders
did not fully respect territorial distribution of ethnic groups, with areas where there were
Hungarian majorities outside the new borders. The French sided with their allies the Romanians
who had a long policy of cultural ties to France since the country broke from the Ottoman
Empire (due in part to the relative ease at which Romanians could learn French) although
Clemenceau personally detested Bratianu. President Wilson initially supported the outline of
a border that would have more respect to ethnic distribution of population based on the Coolidge
Report, led by A. C. Coolidge, a Harvard professor, but later gave in, due to changing international
politics and as a courtesy to other allies.For Hungarian public opinion, the fact that almost
three-fourths of the pre-war kingdom’s territory and a significant number of ethnic Hungarians
were assigned to neighbouring countries triggered considerable bitterness. Most Hungarians preferred
to maintain the territorial integrity of the pre-war kingdom. The Hungarian politicians
claimed that they were ready to give the non-Hungarian ethnicities a great deal of autonomy. Most
Hungarians regarded the treaty as an insult to the nation’s honour. The Hungarian political
attitude towards Trianon was summed up in the phrases Nem, nem, soha! (“No, no, never!”)
and Mindent vissza! (“Return everything!” or “Everything back!”). The perceived humiliation
of the treaty became a dominant theme in inter-war Hungarian politics, analogous with the German
reaction to the Treaty of Versailles. The outcome of the Treaty of Trianon is to
this day remembered in Hungary as the Trianon trauma. All official flags in Hungary were
lowered until 1938, when they were raised by one-third after southern Slovakia and Ruthenia,
with respectively 59% and 86% Hungarian populations, were annexed following the peacetime Munich
Conference and First Vienna Award, whereby Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy sought to satisfy
Hungarian territorial claims. Hungarian irredentism fuelled not only the post-war kingdom’s revisionist
foreign policy but was also a source of regional tension after the Cold War.===Economic consequences===The Austro-Hungarian Empire was one economic
unit with autarkic characteristics during its golden age and therefore achieved rapid
growth, especially in the early 20th century when GNP grew by 1.76%. (That level of growth
compared very favourably to that of other European nations such as Britain (1.00%),
France (1.06%), and Germany (1.51%).) There was also a division of labour present throughout
the empire: that is, in the Austrian part of the Monarchy manufacturing industries were
highly advanced, while in the Kingdom of Hungary an agroindustrial economy had emerged. By
the late 19th century, economic growth of the eastern regions consistently surpassed
that of western, thus discrepancies eventually began to diminish. The key success of fast
development was specialisation of each region in fields that they were best.
The Kingdom of Hungary was the main supplier of wheat, rye, barley and other various goods
in the empire and these comprised a large portion of the empire’s exports. Meanwhile,
the territory of present-day Czech Republic (Kingdom of Bohemia) owned 75% of the whole
industrial capacity of former Austria-Hungary. This shows that the various parts of the former
monarchy were economically interdependent. As a further illustration of this issue, post-Trianon
Hungary produced 500% more agricultural goods than it needed for itself and mills around
Budapest (some of the largest ones in Europe at the time) operated at 20% level. As a consequence
of the treaty, all the competitive industries of the former empire were compelled to close
doors, as great capacity was met by negligible demand owing to economic barriers presented
in the form of the newly defined borders. Post-Trianon Hungary possessed 90% of the
engineering and printing industry of the pre-war Kingdom, while only 11% of timber and 16%
of iron was retained. In addition, 61% of arable land, 74% of public roads, 65% of canals,
62% of railroads, 64% of hard surface roads, 83% of pig iron output, 55% of industrial
plants, and 67% of credit and banking institutions of the former Kingdom of Hungary lay within
the territory of Hungary’s neighbours. New borders also bisected transport links – in
the Kingdom of Hungary the road and railway network had a radial structure, with Budapest
in the centre. Many roads and railways, running along the newly defined borders and interlinking
radial transport lines, ended up in different, highly introvert countries. Hence, much of
the rail cargo traffic of the emergent states was virtually paralysed. These factors all
combined created some imbalances in the now separated economic regions of the former Monarchy. The disseminating economic problems had been
also noted in the Coolidge Report as a serious potential aftermath of the treaty. This opinion
was not taken into account during the negotiations. Thus, the resulting uneasiness and despondency
of one part of the concerned population was later one of the main antecedents of World
War II. Unemployment levels in Austria, as well as in Hungary, were dangerously high,
and industrial output dropped by 65%. What happened to Austria in industry happened to
Hungary in agriculture where production of grain declined by more than 70%. Austria,
especially the imperial capital Vienna, was a leading investor of development projects
throughout the empire with more than 2.2 billion crown capital. This sum sunk to a mere 8.6
million crowns after the treaty took effect and resulted in a starving of capital in other
regions of the former empire.The disintegration of the multi-national state conversely impacted
neighbouring countries, too: In Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia, and Bulgaria a fifth to a third
of the rural population could find no work, and industry was in no position to absorb
them. In comparison, by 1921 the new Czechoslovak
state reached 75% of its pre-war production owing to their favourable position among the
victors, and greater associated access to international rehabilitation resources.With
the creation of customs barriers and fragmented protective economies, the economic growth
and outlook in the region sharply declined, ultimately culminating in a deep recession.
It proved to be immensely challenging for the successor states to successfully transform
their economies to adapt to the new circumstances. All the formal districts of Austria-Hungary
used to rely on each other’s exports for growth and welfare; by contrast, 5 years after the
treaty, traffic of goods between the countries dropped to less than 5% of its former value.
This could be attributed to the introduction of aggressive nationalistic policies by local
political leaders.The drastic shift in economic climate forced the countries to re-evaluate
their situation and to promote industries where they had fallen short. Austria and Czechoslovakia
subsidised the mill, sugar and brewing industries, while Hungary attempted to increase the efficiency
of iron, steel, glass and chemical industries. The stated objective was that all countries
should become self-sufficient. This tendency, however, led to uniform economies and competitive
economic advantage of long well-established industries and research fields evaporated.
The lack of specialisation adversely affected the whole Danube-Carpathian region and caused
a distinct setback of growth and development compared to the West as well as high financial
vulnerability and instability.===Miscellaneous consequences===Romania, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia had
to assume part of the financial obligations of the former Kingdom of Hungary on account
of the parts of its former territory that were assigned under their sovereignty.
Some conditions of the Treaty were similar to those imposed on Germany by the Treaty
of Versailles. After the war, the Austro-Hungarian navy, air force and army were disbanded. The
army of post-Trianon Hungary was to be restricted to 35,000 men and there was to be no conscription.
Heavy artillery, tanks and air force were prohibited. Further provisions stated that
in Hungary, no railway would be built with more than one track, because at that time
railways held substantial strategic importance economically and militarily.Hungary also renounced
all privileges in territories outside Europe that were administered by the former Austro-Hungarian
monarchy. Articles 54–60 of the Treaty required Hungary
to recognise various rights of national minorities within its borders.Articles 61–66 stated
that all former citizens of the Kingdom of Hungary living outside the newly defined frontiers
of Hungary were to ipso facto lose their Hungarian nationality in one year.==See also====Notes

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