What does Indian Constitution say about languages
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What does Indian Constitution say about languages

October 3, 2019


welcome learners in yet another video
lesson of course code five zero three unit two on Indian languages of tl8
program the topic of today’s lesson is what does Indian Constitution say about
languages before going through the topic I just want to discuss the proposed flow
of today’s video lesson we would go through first with the lesson guide I
would also share the expectations in terms of learning objectives or learning
outcomes after going through the lesson we will discuss language what and what
for we will discuss about Indian Constitution and introduction we will
also discuss about language and Indian Constitution we will also discuss in
this lesson about language education policy in India we will recapitulate at
the end and there would be and take-home task my dear friends there is a lesson
guide in front of you which I want to share with you that while presenting the
topic I will explain the concept you need to attend to my voice and the
slides as well you will find important words sentences have been highlighted
for your attention I have also put summary at the end for retention and I
have put some questions or exercising in between and at the end of my
presentation so you must attempt to answer those questions or perform those
exercises after growing through the video sessions here are the learning
objectives or learning outcome expectation after finishing this lesson
you would be able to understand the concept on the function of language get
a glimpse of Indian Constitution you would be able to know what Constitution
say about languages in India you would be able to familiarize with various
language categories you would be able to understand the
status of Hindi and English as languages in India and you would be able to
understand the three language formula My dear learners if I ask a question from
you that what a language is or how would you define the language I would rather
get a answer as language is a mean of communication it’s mean through we
communicate through we understand through we make meaning out of the
things which are happening around us if you talk about the characteristic of
language language is invariably social in its nature it means it is shared by
the people it is social in its nature and it has a specific history language
is there with us in different forms since our inception on this earth
therefore as far as the characteristics of the language are considered languages
social historical and shared it means that we the people are sharing our are
communicating words or are sharing our feelings and emotions with each other
through the medium of language therefore the blend which plays two
functions one at micro level that is for individual or at macro level that is for
the society or otherwise we can also categorize the functions of the language
as physiological to release the physical and neural energy fatigue function that
is the function of sociability identification function through language
only we can identify the thing around us pleasure function we get pleasure and we
express our joy and fun through language only language also plays a instrument of
our thought that is it plays function of reasoning as well as
communication it also links the individual and the society therefore the
language broadly is a mean of communication which operates or joins
the individual with himself or herself along with joining on relating the
individual with the society what does intend Constitution because in this
lesson our focus is on what Constitution says about Indian language before going
on that we should understand what is our Constitution the Constitution of India
can be understand as the soul or power of India the Constitution of India can
be considered as the thing through which the Indian government and India as a
country is operating and performing it is the supreme law it give births to
other rules laws policy and governance only it is Constitution which give
direction to the people of India to the Government of India to the functionaries
of India and to India as in nation as a state our Constitution is organized in a
preamble which speaks about the spirit of Indian Constitution which should
always be kept intact the spirit of Indian Constitution or the soul of
Indian Constitution cannot be changed then it has article which are 448 in
numbers then there are parts at present we are having 25 parts in Indian
Constitution then there are siddhu’s we are having 12 shadows in calm Indian
Constitution the schedules categorized and tabulate bureaucratic activity and
policy of the government and our Indian Constitution the verse largest
Constitution has gone through or witnessed 118 amendments building
now what Indian Constitution says about languages India is primarily
characterized by cultural diversity we are having linguistic diversity but in
Constitution we are having its basic or core values as national integrity
equality justice and sovereignty therefore Indian Constitution needs to
address the internal conflicts in India which are there due to linguistic
diversity and cultural diversity it needs to negotiate between the groups
which are having different lingual and cultural identities therefore the
Constitution of India elaborately deals with language as an subject in Indian
Constitution we found two direct places where the languages are referred in part
17 of Indian Constitution and in 8 schedule of Indian Constitution the part
17 of Indian Constitution primarily speaks about the place of language in
the governance that is it speaks about official language it is divided in 4
chapter chapter 1 speaks about language of the Union which is accepted as Hindi
as official language chapter 2 talks about regional languages that is the
languages of the state chapter 3 talks about languages of the Supreme Court or
High Court or the language of the judiciary which is Hindi and English and
chapter 4 speaks about special directives chapter 1 has article 343
which talks about official language of the Union article 344 which talks about
Commission and commits of parliament on official language that
is Hindi and co-official language that is English article 345 talks about
official language or the languages of the state at present we are having 29
states in India and article 345 speaks about in which language these 29 states
should hold their work article 346 speaks about official language for
communication between one state and other a between a state and the Union
therefore this article talks about the language of the relationship or the
communication between state and a state or between state and a union article 347
and chapter 2 of part 17 speaks about special provisions related to language
spoken by a section of population of a state chapter 3 which is on language of
the codes has article 348 and 349 into it article 349 talks about language to
be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Court and 4x and bills etc article
349 talks about special procedures for enactment of certain laws relating to
language chapter 4 which is on special directives in Indian constitutions but
17 on official language has 182 article into it which is article 350 and 351
article 350 speaks about language to be used in representation for redress of
grievances it has two subparts article 350 a which facilitates for instruction
in mother tongue at primary stage therefore article 350 has special
reference to education at elementary level article 350 B which speaks about
special officer for linguist took minority it has also a special
reference to the education at elementary level then we are having article 351 as
second article which speaks about directives for development of the Hindi
language my dear learners you must be knowing that Hindi is not yet been
accepted as official language by all the states of India
therefore article 351 has special reference as far as Hindi as official
language is concerned it gives directions to requisite developments for
the Hindi language by the time it has not been accepted by all the states of
India then the second important place in Indian Constitution where the languages
are referred is its eighth schedule which consists of 22 languages these 22
languages are SME Bengali Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Manipuri Malayalam
Company Marathi Nepali Konkani marathi telugu urdu son thali Bordeaux
Maithili and degree so these 22 languages are there the eighth schedule
primarily started with fourteen languages when it was conceived at the
time of making of Constitution is just have fourteen languages in into it the
first amendment related to addition of languages in a channel was there in 1967
which is called as 21st amendment through which the Sindhi language was
added to a schedule through 70 first amendment in 1992 three more languages
Konkani Manipuri and nepali were added to eight schedule of constitution then
with 90 second amendment in constitution in 2003 four more languages were added
namely santolli methylene Bordeaux and dory my dear learners
besides shedule languages we are having two more linguistic categories in which
languages in India are categorized which are regional languages and mother tongue
and classical languages as we have already discussed that new languages are
the languages which have been listed or scheduled in the eighth schedule of
Indian Constitution these are the languages which are listed in the eighth
Jewel and their name and status changes and these are also be called as or
identified as modern Indian languages now the question comes then what are the
regional languages or the mother tongue the mother tongue refers to the language
in which a person’s mother speaks to him or her in their childhood if the mother
is not present than the language spoken at home will be the mother tongue if
there is still doubt then the language mostly spoken at home is the mother
tongue there are sixteen hundred and fifty-two identified mother tongues in
India then there are regional languages regional languages are identified mother
languages or major languages which are not there in eighth schedule of Indian
Constitution and these identified regional languages are hundred in
numbers then we are having another category of linguistic distinction or
categorization which is called the category of classical languages
classical languages are the languages which have a long history in terms of
grammar and literature the criteria for distinguishing any language as classical
language are these language should have a long history of the written literature
approximately of 1500 to 2000 years old then these language should
have some ancient literature or epic in that particular language and then epic
or literature should be considered as the valuable resource by the speakers of
that language then the language which is supposed to be categorized as classical
language should have original literacy tradition that is this literacy
tradition should not be borrowed from the other language communities at
present we are having four classical languages which are Tamil which have
been given the status of classical language in 2004 Sanskrit which have
been given the status of classical language in 2005 Kannada and Telugu
which have been given the status of classical language in 2008 now the
question comes what is the status of Hindi and English as languages in India
how we look at Hindi and how we look at English as language in India and how the
Constitution of India perceives the status of Hindi and English in India as
far as the Hindi is considered it has been accepted as official language in
Indian Constitution the Constitution Assembly on 14th September 1949 adopted
Hindi as the official language of Indian Union there wasn’t clothes to sell
between Hindi and Hindustani to be the official language and my dear learners
you would be surprised to know that Hindi winced a battle only with one
extra word there was an close tie between Hindi and Hindustani Hindi is
the language which is not influenced by other dialects of Hindi
whereas Hindustani is a mixture or amalgamation of Hindi and Urdu language
Hindi in its true form have been accepted as official language
of Indian Constitution does not contain any word of Sanskrit Arabic or Farsi and
Hindi is accepted as official language of both the central government and
various state government such as otha Pradesh Bihar Madhya Pradesh and
Himachal what is the status of English in Indian Constitution English is taken
as or accepted as co-official language as per Indian Constitution My dear
learners in the last lesson we have discussed about the anti Hindi movement
from the southern states of India this is the reason why even after the
vanishing of the British rule on India English is still existing in India ESCO
official language the co-official language is the language in which the
official work of the government runs or is to be done by the time the Hindi is
accepted as official language by all the states of India
English is the language of market English is also facilitate connections
with the world keeping in mind these things English has
been given an important space or place in India in all the policies related to
language the main policy or the major policy which is very much relevant to
the educational scenario of India is the three language formula through which the
Indian language education primarly governs this formula was proposed by
Indian Education Commission 1964 and 66 and has been formally implemented by a
national policy on education in 1968 what is this free language formula
let us know the three language formula which is operating on elementary school
considered the first language to be studied at elementary school is the
mother tongue or regional language the second language could be which should be
studied at elementary school any modern language or English in Hindi speaking
states and Hindi or English in non-hindi speaking States the third language which
should be studied up to elementary schools in India is English or any other
modern Indian language which is not been taught as the second language in both
Hindi and non-hindi speaking States the question comes why three language
formula three language formula is only there to facilitate the linguistic
diversity or to keep it or to flourish the linguistic diversity we have and to
facilitate the communication between the citizens of India every child should
have the functional efficiency in usage of at least three languages which have
obtained in the past of eight class from from the schooling it is expected to
have the functional knowledge of at least two languages besides the mother
tongue or the regional language by all the child all the children in India to
sum up the lesson India is characterized by a rich linguistic diversity and
resulting in internal conflicts and pressure promotion of unity and national
integration are required to be balanced with sustaining linguistic diversity the
Constitution of India which is the supreme Indian law through its part 17
and 8 scheduled attempts to fulfill both the objectives effectively it recognizes
22 languages as shedule languages and takes Hindi as official language
English as co-official language she do languages are also termed as modern
Indian languages besides there are hundred non-scheduled
or regional languages along with sixteen hundred and fifty two mother tongues the
languages with identified long history are termed as classical languages the
linguistic diversity of India demands each of its citizen to be multilingual
to be connected with each other therefore the language education policy
recommends study of at least three languages up to elementary level to
promote functional knowledge of two more languages besides mother tongues amongst
the learner now it’s time to take home tasks and in take-home tasks I expect to
you as a learner to answer the following three questions the first question is
English continues to play an important role in independent India even through
it is a colonial language why the second question is keeping in mind the status
of your state in terms of Hindi or non-hindi speaking state enumerate the
three language formula for your state the third question is identify articles
in Indian Constitution which have direct bearing to language policy in India with
this I thank you all to attend this video lesson we’ll meet you next time in
next video lesson by that time thank you and goodbye

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  1. Thank you madam for you lecture. Please mention the course code, course name, block no. & unit no. It is very helpful to search in the PDF.

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