What Frame Rate Should You Be Filming In?

September 23, 2019

– So today we are gonna do a nice little deep dive on frame rates. This segment is actually just a chapter of a full video course I just
made and it just went live. So if this is the kinda stuff that you want to learn more about, it’s a three hour course,
so go check it out. It is more of a beginners course, but we start all the
way from the bare basics of how to dial in your phone, all the way to shooting on a
RED camera on a Movi Gimbal. So if setting up a camera
is complicated to you, like what is it a log
profile, what is bit rate, what aperture should I be shooting at, the definitely go, check out that course. (upbeat music) Right, so now we know what
that 4K means, what’s that 24? That is going to be our frame rate. So that 24 means 24 frames per second. ‘Cause when you’re watching video, you’re not actually looking
at something that’s moving, you’re looking at a series of images. Still images that move
through and play through fast to where it looks like it’s moving. Kinda like those flip books with a bunch of drawings in them and you go (growls) and
you flip through them and it actually looks
like that art is moving because you’re viewing
through them so quickly. So right now you’re
looking at 24 still images every single second. If this were one frame per second, this is what it would look like. It would look really,
really terribly choppy. And let’s go to four frames per second, that looks a little bit better. Now 12 frames per
second, much, much better but still a little bit rough and this is 24 frames per second which is what I’m currently shooting at. So there’s different
standards on where you live, the most common is NTSC and PAL standards. Now if you live in a place
that has PAL standards then you’re probably working
with 25 frames per second, so easy but I live in America which uses the NTSC video standard which gets a little bit trickier. The most common here is 24 or 30. It’s a little bit
complicated, I say 24 and 30 but really, instead of 24, it’s 23.976 and instead of 30, it’s 29.97. Which is kind of a weird decimal number to have as our standard
and frame rates, right? It’s kind of a dumb
reason why we use that. Way back when color TV’s
were first introduced, broadcast companies had
these technical issues, so what they had to make
that technology work was to slow down the frame rate by .1%. So .1% slower than 24 is 23.976. .1% slower than 30 frames
per second is 29.97. Technology has gotten way,
way, way past the point where we would still need to do that but since those standards
were kind of made way back then and all
the broadcast companies were like, ah, well we’re already doing this complicated 29.976, we’ve kind of adapted to
this weird frame rate. So, generally speaking I’m going
to say 24 frames per second and 30 frames per second
but just keep in mind whenever I say those, I
mean 23.976 and 29.97. And when you’re selecting your
frame rates in most cameras it just says do you wanna shoot 24 or 30? And you just put it at
24 and it automatically it will put it at 23.976. Once you start getting
to the advanced cameras such as that RED, it
will give you the option to shoot between 23.976
or actually true 24. But I personally have
never shot in those formats because of these NPSC standards. So basically, you’ll probably
never need to do it either, so I really wouldn’t worry about that yet unless a client comes to you and says we need to shoot true 24 which again, has never happened to me ever. Now if you’re like me
and live in the states or pretty much anywhere
with NPSC standards, you have to decide, are you
gonna shoot to 24 or 30? Now I shoot 24 as much as I can because I feel like
it’s the most cinematic, it’s not as smooth as 30 but it’s what a majority of
movies have been filmed on because these digital cameras have evolved from film cameras and back then they were just shooting solid 24. So a lot of times we want
this digital cinema cameras to look just like those film cameras ’cause those looked fantastic. So, if you are looking
to get cinematic footage, definitely be shooting 24. So this video is being shot
at 24 frames per second. I bring this footage into the computer and I edit it in a 24
frame per second sequence and then I upload it in and publish it as a 24 frame per second. So notice that whole pipeline, that whole work flow, 24, 24, 24. So how about 30 frames per second? It’s more frames per second so it is going to be a bit more smooth. I would show you what 30
frames per second looks like but I can’t because again
I’m editing this video in 24 frames per second. So I could put my camera
into 30 frames per second so then my camera would be shooting 30 but when I bring this
into the editing software, it would take that 30 frames per second and it would just extract
one out of every four frames, I think to make it 24 frames per second. So it ends up being a jacked
up 24 frames per second. And once you start editing a video, you can’t switch the frame rate. Every video clip is one frame rate so I can’t have the video
be 24 frames per second in some parts and 30 frames
per second in some parts, like one video is gonna be one frame rate. So for me to show you
30 frames per second, I would have to shoot
in 30 frames per second, edit in 30 frames per second and upload in 30 frames per second. So that is why it is very
important for you to know what frame rate you’re
filming at very early on in the process. So when you pick up your
camera you should already know, I’m gonna edit this in this frame rate so make sure all the cameras
that we’re using for this video is in that same frame rate. It’s not gonna be the worst thing ever if you’ve mixed the two frame rates, like if you put 24 frame per second video into a 30 frame per second video, then it’s just gonna
duplicate some of the frames to just fill in that space. But on the other hand if you
were a professional film maker and you deliver 30
frame per second footage when they ask for 24, you will never get a call
back from them again. (laughs) And like I mention 30 frames per second is going to be a bit smoother and it is also a bit more common. Pretty much all video cameras
can shoot 30 frames per second but not all cameras can shoot 24 so 30 is gonna be a tad bit more universal. I definitely recommend checking what all your cameras can shoot in. And if you’re not necessarily
going for that cinematic look, then going 30 may be a
little bit beneficial for you because it is going to
be a tad bit smoother as we mentioned. So a lot of news, reality
TV, sports, often they film in 30 frames per second, just to give it that extra smoothness. And again a camera operator,
for channel four news isn’t necessarily gonna be like, I need this to be cinematic. Let’s film this newscast
at golden hour. (laughs) By the way golden hour
is right before sunset when the sky and sunlight
looks really nice and orange, it’s a great time to shoot. Most of you already knew that but this is a beginners course so just wanna make sure
that I cover everything. So, based off that you
should have a general idea of what frame rate you plan on shooting at and if you decide to
go 24 frames per second then make sure all your
cameras can shoot 24. Now there are some people that shoot, edit and upload 60 frames per second which I wouldn’t recommend. You’re really not benefiting that much from having that extra frame per second, at going all the way at 60 and that’s double the number of frames, so that’s double the amount of information it takes to process those
frames and a lot of times instead of doubling the
quality of each frame, they actually reduce each frame in half if you’re trying to fit
a certain bandwidth. It’s gonna require more light to shoot it, a lot more data to store it. Just I wouldn’t really do it. But just because you don’t want to upload all your videos in 60 frames per second doesn’t mean you shouldn’t
shoot 60 frames per second. I actually set this camera
to 60 frame per second all the time. There’s your camera’s frame
rate or your shooting frame rate and there’s also your project framing. What you’re gonna be editing and they’re two completely
separate independent things. Most of the times you’re
gonna want that to sync up, so this project 24 camera
right now is shooting 24. But let’s say we get an epic shot of Sam trying to look cool. That was too fast so let’s
try to make it slow motion. Notice that now it looks
really, really choppy, why is that? Well, what we did is we took our 24 frames that we recorded in a second
and we stretched it out so there’s no longer images in
between each of these frames. That’s why the footage turns out choppy, there’s nothing there to look at. So what we need to do
is to create more frames to stick in between there
when we stretch it out. That way we have a nice
full timeline of frames that we can watch through. So the more you wanna slow it down, the further the frames are
gonna get stretched apart and we you want more and more frames. So the more slow motion you want, the more frames you have to record. So one example, I directed a music video for Pepe Aguilar and we shot
at 30 frames per second. And everyone was like, 30
frames, I thought you wanted this to look cinematic? What the F was you thinking? But the reason why we shot that at 30 is because I wanted to slow
it down just a little bit so if you take 30 frames
per second footage and slow it down to 80% just
enough to take the edge off, it felt a little less harsh than real time but it didn’t really
feel like slow motion, it was just a little bit of
like, is that slow motion? One thing to keep in
mind with music videos is that the artist does
need to listen to the song so you can sync in post. The thing is if you’re
gonna shoot slow motion then you have to counter the lip syncing by speeding up the song. So they actually have to
lip sync to a faster version of their song. So really when we’re filming
they’re just like (mumbles). It feels weird but it looks good when you end up slowing down the song because then their syncing
matches with the song. And if your project is
30 frames per second and then you shoot 60 frames per second, there’s a little math involved but then at that point you
could put it through 50% speed. Then you can get into slow
shots, more frames per second recorded the slower you can make it, so 120 frames per second,
240 frames per second. 240 frames per second is 10
times more frames per second then 24 which means you can
slow down that footage 10 times and it still looks perfectly
smooth, so awesome. Anyways, hopefully that cleared
up any sort of questions you might have had about frame rates and why you would choose 24
frames, 30 frames per second and high frame rates like
60, 120, 240 and beyond. And if you wanna another three full hours of me explaining stuff about cameras then go check that link
down in the description where I go over everything
from recording on your phone to shooting on a cinema camera. Anyways, let’s read some comments from a video I recently just posted about the new DJI Osmo Action in comparing it to the GoPro Hero7 Black. The top comment from KingCanon, “Everybody else rushed out a video, thanks for sitting on
this and finding hiccups in the software. Slow and steady wins the race.” – Well, I appreciate that
KingCanon but let’s be real if DJI were to send me an
early version of the camera, I definitely would have rushed ’cause it’s like guaranteed views but yeah, I mean the DJI Osmo Action, still an awesome camera, I just still kinda prefer the Hero7 Black. Lee Chris prefers the GoPro. “I fly FPV drones and the
real steady go quality is unbeatable.” Oh man, FPV drones, those
things are kind of crazy. I have one, I actually
bought one not too long ago but I’ve been too
intimidated to hook it up and try to turn it on. I don’t know what I’m
doing, it’s complicated. It’s not like a DJI drone
where you plug it in and everything makes sense. So this thing, I mean, do I plug it in, will it explode if I plug it
in, I really honestly, don’t– Oh, my god, what was that sound? (electronic beeping) See what is happening? This is exactly my point, I need help, I need some serious help with this. Okay, I’m gonna unplug it,
save it before it blows up. Couldn’t tell the difference
between that and a time bomb where you have to cut the right wire or else it’s gonna blow up on you, that’s how I feel, that’s how
much anxiety I have right now. It’sNJ says he prefers
the “DJI Osmo Action because of the rock steady stabilization, also Firmware updates are
coming in for the Osmo which might fix some of the
bugs you are talking about.” And I hope so because I do
really wanna use this thing more and I do love how it has
this front facing display. Like look at this little thing, it’s a perfect little vlog camera, I can’t wait to take it traveling and I’m headed to Mexico this summer so this would be a perfect
little companion for that. And you know thanks for
sticking around to the end and also thank you for
checking out my course and whoever buys it and gives me money, I thank you too also and I’ll
see you guys later, peace. (upbeat music)

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