What is a Stadtholder? / Wat is een Stadhouder? (Dutch Republic – European History)
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What is a Stadtholder? / Wat is een Stadhouder? (Dutch Republic – European History)

October 23, 2019


So I went to the Netherlands this summer.
Got a really cool mug from Amsterdam. Learned a lot of stuff, too! I was over there ostensibly
learning about the history of the Dutch Republic and trade and the modern economy and all of
that kind of stuff so I want to do a lecture series on the history of the Dutch Republic.
And I’m going to start that lecture series by answering what might seem to be a very
simple question, but it’s not, and that question is, “What is a stadtholder?” Who is this guy
that keeps coming up in the history of the Dutch Republic and what does this title mean?
It seems nebulous and all of that kind of stuff – seems complex. Who is he? What did
this person do? That’s the question that I want to answer first of all in this lecture
series on the history of the Dutch Republic. So what is a stadtholder? Let start with the
word, stadtholder. This comes from a Dutch word, stadhouder. How’s my Dutch? Stadhouder
means “placeholder” in the sense that someone is standing in place of or in stead of. Now,
keep in mind that the Dutch language is almost like the German language and the English language
got together and had an illegitimate child or something like that and that illegitimate
child is Dutch. Not to say that Dutch is illegitimate! I LOVE the language. Okay? And so the stadtholder is a placeholder. And
really, part of why this word seems so nebulous and so hard to comprehend is it doesn’t always
mean the same thing all the time. The stadtholdership really goes through three phases and those
three phases – the 3 R’s sounds all nice and teacherly and easy to remember – a royal steward,
a rebel leader, and a republican head of state(s). So the stadtholder starts off as a steward.
Now, when I think steward, I think Lord of the Rings. Great little story here, alright?
Because I was going through a flea market when I was in Amsterdam and all of a sudden,
I zoomed in on… WAAAAAAAH… In de Ban van de Ring. Or de Ring [makes Dutch g sound].
I guess you would say it like that, okay, because when the Dutch when they see a g they’re
like [makes guttural sound] something like that. Alright. But this is The Fellowship
of the Ring in Dutch. Now unfortunately, I don’t have any idea what any of this stuff
says but… that’s Mordor. It’s the same in Dutch. But I’m so excited to have this book
that I can’t read. Y’all know how much I love Lord of the Rings. But, anyway, as far as the steward goes…
This is the person who is there instead of a higher lord who would have the nominal right
to that territory. So the stadtholder would govern this territory in the absence of higher
absentee nobles. And in the 15th and 16th century, the Netherlands was ruled by the
Habsburg emperors. And the Habsburg emperors would appoint stadtholders. And William of
Orange was appointed Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, and Utrecht. And what we have here
is a case of the stadtholder, after some reluctant self-reflection, becoming the leader of the
rebellion against his lord. So William of Orange, the stadtholder, becomes the leader
of the Dutch Revolt. And so now, the stadtholdership goes from being the royal steward to the rebel
general – that now, William of Orange is George Washington. William of Orange is Robert E.
Lee. So William of Orange is the Stadtholder of
Holland, Zeeland, and Utrecht and the thing is that now, as a confederation – now, keep
in mind that the Dutch Republic was not a nation. It was not a unitary government. Each
province appointed its own stadtholder, so he wasn’t stadtholder of the Netherlands or
anything like that. So that States of Holland would appoint their own stadtholder; and hopefully,
enough people would agree so that there was a bit of unity. So William of Orange was also
the stadtholder also of Friesland ends up appointing him as the stadtholder, as well,
so there are four provinces that end up appointing William of Orange as their stadtholder. But
as a confederation, several provinces would often appoint the same stadtholder but, then
again, if you look at 1625, you see that sometimes provinces named different stadtholders – typically
descendants of William of Orange, but you’ll have one stadtholder in Holland, Zeeland,
and Utrecht – and in this case, Gelderland – and then, Overijssel, Drenthe, and Friesland
have their own stadtholder. So you have two different stadtholders. That’s okay because
each province appoints their stadtholder. So, what IS a stadtholder? Now, what’s funny
about this is one of the best sources we have about the stadtholdership is James Madison’s
Notes on Ancient and Modern Confederacies. James Madison wrote this when he was preparing
for the Constitutional Convention and he writes these notes really based on a lot of European
scholarship. This isn’t actually original scholarship on Madison’s part and he’s making
notes about all of these texts he’s reading because he wants to find out what were the
strong points of previous confederations and what were the defects? So, as he’s going through,
he’s looking at Sir William Temple. He’s looking at Charles-Joseph Panckoucke – or [struggles
with pronunciation] or whatever, okay? Something like that. Sorry for you pronunciation snobs.
And Hugo Grotius, who was actually a Dutch scholar. And so Madison’s observations are
based on his readings of these European philosophers – in many cases, books that Thomas Jefferson
had sent him from Europe. So, let’s go into the civil powers of the
stadtholder as head of state(s) – now, notice I’m not saying “head of state” because the
Dutch Republic wasn’t a “state” so to speak as much of a confederation provinces and states.
There are eight powers that Madison identifies as belonging to the stadtholder: First of all, the power to settle differences
between provinces. Second, to recommend and influence the appointment
of ambassadors. Third, to be an ex officio member of the Council
of State. Four: to preside in the Provincial Courts
of Justice where his names is prefixed to all public acts. Five: the supreme curator of most of the universities. Six: to appoint town magistrates. Seven: to give audiences to ambassadors. And Eight: the power of pardon. Now, a lot of these powers sound a lot like
the powers of the president of the United States or most heads of state today. Now,
also the stadtholder tended to be the captain general – the commander in chief of the armed
forces. Keep in mind that this didn’t automatically come with the stadtholdership but was typically
conferred upon the stadtholder. Whoever held that office would also hold the office of
captain general and of admiral general – the head of the navy – so he could control all
of the armed forces and pretty much lead the rebel army, so to speak, and rebel navy. Now, the stadholdership was a republican institution,
meaning that this was not a king. This was not hereditary. This wasn’t something that
automatically passed to his son. This is not something that was permanent. It wasn’t institutionalized
until very late in the Republic. Now, William of Orange was the model stadtholder.
When you go to the Netherlands, everyone knows about Willem van Oranje. He’s a national hero.
He’s the father of their country. Before this, nobody really would have thought of a Dutch
nation or anything like that – of the Netherlands as being its own thing – so really, the father
of their country. And according to an outside observer, an Englishman who was visiting Delft
– I had the privilege of visiting Willem van Oranje’s house at the Prinsenhof in Delft
– and I read this thing that really struck me as very “small r” republican, so to speak,
where this English observer said, “His clothes look like those of a humble student,
his jacket is a knitted sweater, like those worn by one of our ferrymen. His friends are
citizens of this beer-brewing city of Delft, and he fits in perfectly.” So although he is a high noble from this important
house, he realizes how to get along in a republic and he’s able to make himself into this republican
sort of figure, which is part of the reason why people loved him so much. And this is
really illustrated well at this kind of copy of Willem van Oranje’s grave at the Prinsenhof.
You can see that he’s lying down – he’s got his fancy little whatever they put around
their necks there – and then you see that he’s sort of in some sort of sleeping cap…
and then at his feet, a dog. Alright? That, you know… it’s like, “Hey, I’m just lying
down with my dog, you know? I’m not just some high nobleman or something like that. I’m
one of you. Alright? I’m just a guy who takes a nap with his dog.” When you look at Dutch
art from this period, dogs are all over the place, but I just thought that was really
cool that he’s just got that dog at his feet. Just seems like such a normal guy… Now, as much as William of Orange might have
projected republican simplicity, that wasn’t necessarily the case with stadtholders that
followed him. In a lot of cases, the pretensions of the office and the trappings of the court
and all of that stuff… that they would become more elevated over time as things often do.
And the House of Orange-Nassau typically held the stadtholdership. All – or nearly all – of
the republican stadtholders were descendants of William of Orange. And this presents a
bit of a problem when you’re looking at the history of the Dutch Republic. The republic’s
constitution presented some contradictions because on one hand, you’ve got a federal
republic, which really is a lot like the young United States that’s going to come along later…
but the figurehead is a semi-hereditary noble. Now, nominally elected, but at the same time
all coming from the same noble house and all of that kind of stuff, so is it a republic?
Is it a monarchy? Is it somewhere in between? Keep in mind that this is a government that
was cobbled together during a rebellion. They weren’t necessarily starting from scratch.
They were starting with what they had. But the House of Orange is a very prominent feature
in the Dutch Republic and… it’s a bit of a contradiction. James Madison is reflecting
– possibly through someone else but saying that “this is a strange effect of human contradictions…
Men too jealous to confide their liberty to their representatives who are their equals
abandoned it to a prince who might the more easily abuse it.” To somebody like Madison,
it seems a little weird that they would let a hereditary nobleman be their figurehead…
but it seemed to work for them. Now, there were some people who didn’t like
the influence of the House of Orange – people who wanted a less centralized government.
And so you had conflicts between the Orangists and people who wanted to see more of a role
for the states. Now, I plan to do another lecture on this topic and when I do, I’ll
put a little card or some kind of link there so you can access it. So the Orangists and the States are often
going after each other but the thing is that this republic, being in the midst of all of
these European monarchies – these much stronger states – that it’s very difficult, as Madison
said, that “It is certain that so many independent Corps & interests could not be kept together
without such a center of Union as the Stadtholdership” – that the stadtholdership is the glue that
keeps this thing together. Now, the tried a few stadtholderless periods, these people
who wanted the States to have more influence and did not want this central unifying figure
of the stadtholder, but every time they brought the stadtholder back. Madison, citing William
Temple, wrote that “In the intermission of the Stadtholdership Holland by her riches
& authority… drew the others into a sort of dependence.” So typically, this movement
to reduce the influence of the House of Orange was driven by the Hollanders because the Hollanders
had more money. The controlled trade. Amsterdam is there and all of that kind of stuff. So
Holland liked this sort of arrangement because they got to call the shots. Now, people in
the other provinces, they tended to prefer the Oranges because the Oranges would unite
everyone and keep Holland from running the show. “With such a government the Union never could
have subsisted, if in effect the provinces had not withing themselves a spring capable
of quickening their tardiness and impelling them to the same way of thinking. “This spring is the stadtholder.” So in 1754, really the Orangists end up winning
this thing and the stadtholdership is institutionalized – that a hereditary stadtholder general is
established in the late Dutch Republic so you have William IV and William V… but alas,
it does not last forever because in 1795, enter Napoleon and that is the end of that.
And William V runs off to Britain in exile. Now of course, that’s not the end of the House
of Orange. The current king of the Netherlands is of the House of Orange so they haven’t
gone anywhere. You see where they’ve got those orange flowers and those oranges – which kind
of ironically, oranges in Dutch are not referred to as oranje, like the color, but they’re
referred to as sinaasappels. So, he’s got oranje flowers and sinaasappels. Go figure. So what is a stadtholder? It’s pretty complicated
but it was an important unifying figure in the Dutch Republic – a royal steward, a rebel
leader, and a republican head of state. And this person unified a republic that might
not otherwise have been able to exist. Hopefully, you learned a little something
and I hope to continue some more lecture on the history of the Dutch Republic so if you
want to see those, be sure to subscribe. TomRichey.net, my website. Twitter. Instagram. All of that
kind of stuff. Find me on Facebook. I’ll be back with some more lectures soon. Until next
time. [Music]

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  1. The tale behind the dog at his feet goes as follows, after William of Orange war murdered by Baltazar his dog died of a depression he got of his owner dying…

  2. RinGGGGGH.. Not really, more the other way around. It is pronounced the same as in English, but with a very distinct R at the beginning. We call it a rolling r. You will get it by keeping you tongue extended (not too much, just don't curl it up) and forming the r sound as much forward as possible, against your pallet (?). Now hold on to that sound a little longer than you are used to and you will have the rolling R as in RRing.

  3. Tom, ng is a digraph in dutch and makes the same sound basically as it does in english. That nasally thing you hear in words like king. Nice attempt on the pronunciation of dutch in general though, I was surprised you dared to attempt a dutch pronunciation of Utrecht.

  4. Though Dutch isn't the child of English and German; it's just that, genetically, Dutch is as close to German than to English (more or less)

  5. ring in dutch is just like ring in english, no ggggghh involved, because of the 'ng' construct. Otherwise yes, you would indeed pronounce it like that. Greetings from Amsterdam, and keep up this awesome educational show!

  6. Interesting! But with so many small mistakes.

    The biggest being that William of Orange united the Netherlands. Totally wrong. The Netherlands were united by the Dukes of Burgundy. The last Duchess Maria married Maximilian of Austria, Duke of Habsburg. Their son died young, and their grandson took charge when Maximilian got old, that was Charles V, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, King of Spain, Duke of Habsburg, Duke of Burgundy etc.
    He gave the Netherlands their own institutions and united the Provincial Staten (representatives) into the Staten General.
    He made them a unity and fully independent from the Holy Roman Empire.
    After the split up between the north and south (80 years war), each country continued the structure. Nowadays the institutes in Belgium are still similar to the ones in the Netherlands.

    During the time of William of Orange the Seven United Provinces were looking for a new head of state. Several were tried, like the Duke of Anjou, the Duke of Lester, and more. Because they could not find one, they decided to go on as a republic. The Stadhouder represented a lord that didn't exist, and the Staten General were defacto the highest authority. The Orange-Nassau family was never asked to be Lord of the Netherlands!

    The struggle between Orangists and Patriots was not about central gouvernment (unlike the USA) because both wanted this. It was about leadership, the Stadhouder (who was taking more and more power) or the Staten General.
    This repeats itself during the 19th century when the Netherlands accepted an almost absolute King, who made a mess and lost half the country, and after 30 years we forced his son to sign a constitution in which he lost almost all power, the most liberal constitution at that time.

  7. Thanks for your videos! I am brand new at teaching AP Euro and these are a great source to reinforce what we do in class. Just curious..are you still planning on making more Dutch Republic videos?

  8. Missed the class on the dutch revolt you saved me cause the things i found on the internet was not that clear. ^^ thanks a lot!

  9. In the Dutch language when the n and the g or the n and the k are next to each other, we pronounce it the same way as you do.

  10. i really liked this video. thanks. history is my hobi. you are always helping me to find a topic and then rent a book from a local library to do my little research. channels like this, the grat war, its history, historia civilias, epic history… are meking my hobi much easier and helping me understand the world around me. because what is this momment? just another day in a historY!!! i really appreciate what you do. Pavle

  11. 4:55 The states are all mixed up and wrong, listed all seven to make it clear:
    The Duchy of Guelders (Gelderland modern times)
    The County of Holland
    The County of Zeeland
    The Episcopal Principality of Utrecht
    The Lordship of Overijssel
    The Lordship of Frisia EDIT:(Friesland modern times)
    The Lordship of Groningen and Ommelanden.

    Ommelanden(=surrounding lands)meant Drenthe because it was too small to be it's own. You can compare it to Wyoming and just say Wyoming is to be governed by it's neighbor.

    These titles are still bestowed upon the monarch today, except those of Utrecht and Drenthe. This is a thorn in the eye of Holland, since Gelderland is a Duchy therefore must be mentioned before the Count of Holland.

  12. Matey, "Dutch" ("Nederduits" translated into english "Netherish-Germanic") might be complicated, odd and even bear a horrible sound but it´s not a sort of mixture of german and english, it precedes both since it´s the old low frankish, meaning germanic language that was spoken westwards of the Rhine long before German existed as unified language and long before English could evolute and get standardized. On the other hand what is today ABN (Algemeen Beschaafd Nederlands) was based on the hollandic dialects since the actual source of the netherlandish language is Flemish, for Flanders was the most flourishing part of Europe, not to oversee that at the same time was the richest and most developed region of the Low Countries when Holland was a backwardish, poor and underdeveloped corner into the whole of it; that is to say long before those primitive provinces rose to the wolrd major player which they would became much later (due in large part to the belligerant presence of the Spaniards in "Kernland" Flanders and Brabant, specifically running down the powerhouse of the XVI Century-Antwerp, for it is not to forget that Amsterdam was nicknamed New-Antwerp for a while…).
    If we could hear Charlemagne speak today in his mother language it would be pretty much the same idiom with a way softer vocalization similar to the flemish than to the "official" hollandic known, so full of those "GGGGHHHHH"-sounds and metallic inflections….

  13. For the part where the dog lies at his feet: people found it strange to look at people's soles, especially those of revered individuals, so usually they put a pillow or small dog there to counter this.

  14. As Tom said, the stadhouder is a quasi-monarchial head of state, or in this case, head of the either the confederate Dutch Republic or of a particular Dutch province – only after the Orangist usurpation after the Rampjaar did it become fixed (again as he said). His counterpart as head of government would be the raadspensionaris (grand pensionary), a quasi-prime minister that heads the dominant faction (Prinsgezinden/Orangist vs. Staatsgezinden/Statist).

    And about the dog, most paintings made in this era used the dog as symbolism for "loyalty" (German: Vertrauen; Dutch: vertrouwen).

    And about the "sinaasappel:" it literally means "Chinese apples." Back then Europeans called almost all edible plant produce "apples:" potatoes were perhaps the best known as "aardappel" in Dutch, "Erdäpfel" in Austrian German, and "Härdäpfel" in Swiss German (note that the Standard German word is "Kartoffel"). Back then they thought that oranges were just "apples that grew in the Orient," brought to the continent through trade (Silk Road and the sea routes). Therefore, their conclusion. (Vsauce had a video about this as well.)

  15. "Orange" refers to a title, a piece of land somewhere in Southern France. Not to a piece of fruit, lol. Just like Nassau is a title, of a piece of land somewhere in Germany. Hence, Willem van Oranje-Nassau.

  16. Dutch is a mixture of English and German? That'll be the day. You can make a mockery of the Dutch language, but please… first learn and appreciatie the emphasis in the Dutch language (it is STADhouder, not stadHOUder. Oh, we have a 'funny' G in our language. You are absolutely the FIRST AMERICAN who addresses this… yeah right! First TAKE the lesson, then give one. If you really can't help yourself and want to scream it out all over the place, please learn Dutch. It will be refreshing

  17. stadholder ?! haha why dont just call it cityholder ,… stad is city , houder is holder Welcome to the Age Of Reason

  18. What is a Stadtholder ? a citykeeper. -not placeholder, sure a city is a place, but a place is not necasarily a city, but a stad IS a city.

  19. Maybe you could also tell something about the 'akte van Verlatinghe', the big inspiration the declaration of independence.. We don't celebrate that one while you celebrate the fourth of July every year. I think you are right.
    Anyway I don't always agree with you but I do like your lessons very much.

  20. Swede here, love the Dutch. Such great people in such a small state. The architecture-breathtaking!
    The weed isn't bad either 😉

  21. just because there is a letter G does not mean it makes the G sound, there is an N right in front of it so it makes the NG sound.

    obviously.

  22. One of the reasons the Orange-Nassau was so pivotal was because of its status as a 'prince', and therefore eligible for Royal marriages, which cemented alliances between countries. This was prevalent in the alliance between England & the Netherlands, and also with Prussia and minor German principalities.

    The Oranje-Nassau family's significance cannot be seen apart from the monarchies surrounding the Netherlands.

  23. The Dutch flag went back and forth from orange-white-blue to red-white-blue a few times. The red-white-blue won out (to the delight of the republicans vs royalist) because red was easier to see to identify ships at sea than orange.

  24. Robert E. Lee was in command of the Army of Northern Virginia. He wasn't a politician. At the very end he commanded all the armies but he had no direct control and other Generals outranked him. Samuel Cooper for one. He never led the people. Jefferson Davis was the President and that's who Lee took orders from him and advised him. When Lee surrendered Davis made a run for it with some of his cabinet and there were other armies fighting in the field. It wasn't until October or November 1865 that the Confederate Raider Shanandoah was captured. The final land battle was Palmetto Ranch, Texas and the Confederates won. Lee would have liked to have been George Washington. Even Washington had the Continental Congress to report to.

  25. 14:02 — Napoleon wasn't involved in that, he didn't call the shots yet. It was just the Revolutionary Army's doing, they needed traderoutes and lower interest rates on their Dutch loans. And revolutionary sentiment in the Dutch Republic was relatively large at the time. There was a large liberal uprising in the Dutch Republic, put down by Prussian forces, a couple of years prior to the French Revolution, and a lot of political refugees from that revolt accompanied the French when the Republic was occupied. And after the defeat of Napoleon, not many political voices in the Netherlands wanted to actively reverse French reforms. In short: a lot of Dutch people felt indifferent at worst to the French annexation. You could say they felt somewhat eager for something new

  26. Sinaasappel is an apple from china, chinasapple
    The tangerines (from the maroccan city Tanger) we call Mandarijnen (mandrin's)
    Willem van Oranje was duke or something from the french city of Orange and of the german county of Nassau, therefore Willem van Oranje Nassau.
    Just some facts nobody needs to know but are funny.

  27. You said Overijsel Drenthe and Friesland. But Drenthe at the time wasn't recognized as by the States General cause it was so poor it was exempt from federal taxes so the the third one would be Groningen instead.

  28. read my story Big Science at Medium (search on Jesper Andersson, as I said on Medium.com) if this might be interesting

  29. Just for your info: 'Ring' is pronounced in Dutch just as it is in English, except that the 'r' is somewhat rolled.

  30. You probably knew this, but the word 'yankee' originated from Americans misshearing the names of the Dutch (Jan Kees [jahn case]) and then went on to call everybody Jankees

  31. The dog has a different story. The dog was willem's dog. when willem of orange died the dog kept standing guard at his bed refusing to eat or drink. The dog eventually died at willems feet. In my history lessons I know that they where buried together if I really dig in my memory. I might be in correct at some parts. Greetings from a Nederlander!

  32. Love hearing foreigners teach about the history of our country. Stad (or stadt in Old Dutch) btw means city. So literally speaking a stadthouder translates to "city holder" however, the title of that is much more as it would suggest.

  33. Sure you just went to the netherlands "to find out more about the dutch republic" , a little bit of culture to soak in.

  34. Hey hey now there !?
    If anything , English is a mixture of germanic languages ( It is itself Germanic ) , a bit of French and some of UK ancient languages , not the other way around !!!
    Especially when it comes to nautical terms used in english , I would think that at least 50% are of dutch origin .

  35. Great video… one thing I never realized is that Stadtholder and instead are related words. Stad means city in Dutch, but the origin of the word (old Germanic) is location or place. Just like instead means in someone's (or something) place. Which comes back to the word stadtholder, which is someone who rules in someones stead… or stad.. or city… Amsterdam…Gondor.

  36. And sinaasappel stands for China's apples where they originated from.

    Disclaimer:
    This information is completely extracted from unreliable sources on the internet, so use it at your own peril.

  37. James Maddison and the Glorious Revolution.

    The revolution is gloious…

    If you feel it isn't, then you should respond.

  38. As a Dutchman, I feel we should never have changed from a republic to a kingdom. The Stadhouder was a uniquely Dutch institution that worked well (by & large).

  39. Nice! I think the end of the Stadhoudership was not Napoleon , but initially the patriots. The patriots were a reactionary movement in favour of going back to the days of the republic and away from the stadhouders and the regents. The won, but then the brother of the wife of William V, who happened to be the king of Prussia, came to the rescue and the patriots fled to France. When the revolution happened there the patriots came back together with revolutionary Frenchmen and chased William V to England. We then couldn't get rid of the French anymore, so when the French revolution took a wrong turn and produced Napoleon, we got him too, or his brother Lodewijk Napoleon as the first king of the Netherlands. When the house of Orange returned from England after Napoleon, the house of Orange was installed as hereditairy kings after English example.

  40. The reason the Dutch clung on to the title and office of the Stadtholder was the fact that at first the Dutch Revolt didn't start as a revolt. Many nobles put together a letter addressed to king Philip II, who was the king of Spain at the time. In this letter, they politely requested for leniency towards the Protestant religion and also that the Spanish had enforced some rather harsh taxes, could they not be repealed? Philip responded by sending "The Iron Duke," Alva. He tried to suppress the 'rebellion' (because it wasn't a full fledged rebellion at that time) by installing a court which quickly got the nick name 'blood court' because it condemned thousands to death in only a few years' time. When fighting broke out, Alva tried to use terror to subdue the Dutch but the result was exactly the opposite: the more the Spanish used terror (wiping out a few small cities with all inhabitants), the more the Dutch movement grew into a full fledge rebellion/revolt. During that time, William of Orange had been called by his official title because the Dutch people (the richer citizens and nobles that is) thought he would still be able to make peace with the king and make the king relent on the taxes and persecution of Protestants. Even when the 'point of no return' was reached, after Philip had declared William an outlaw, offering a large sum of money for his death, the Dutch continued calling William Stadtholder (of the Spanish king!). But they also formally declared that they no longer regarded Philip II as their king and would he please call back his troops asap. Eventually, that 'asap' took 80 years.

  41. It is not that hard. Stadthouder is indeed placeholder. At the start of the rebellion, it is the governor who had only two people above him. The King of Spain and his regent for the (nowadays) Dutch and Belgian territories. Later on, in 1648, the Dutch proclaimed (as the first in the world) independence on behalf of "The People". Hence, it was the first modern Republic. This made a King impossible because a King derives his power from God, not from The People. So, the term Stadhouder (placeholder) was invented. A King that could not be named King. Ironically, nowadays we have the King and on every law there is written "by the grace of God, King William-Alexander….". Fun fact, the Netherlands is the only EU country that makes Euro coins with tekst on the side, namely "God be with us". Another fun fact, the Germans have the same tekst on the belt of their soldiers. It shows where the priority lies haha.

  42. The revolutionary massive fluteships they sailed with: https://i.ibb.co/0sZqcw6/13537-1248700687-f6e1166cd9f431ab83e6b8dcc57cb66f.jpg

    New Amsterdam from the sea: https://i.ibb.co/5nfL9xj/new-amsterdam.jpg

    Canal on broadway: https://i.ibb.co/27kFcC0/A9PR5R.jpg

    Birdseye view: https://i.ibb.co/SPHMJF4/New-Amsterdam-1664.jpg
    And:
    https://i.ibb.co/YRNj7P6/81910765-137212682238.jpg

    First company share on Earth the company invented: https://i.ibb.co/wSKVMP3/Dutch-East-India-Company-1.png

    The first stock exchange Amsterdam 1611 with company shares: https://i.ibb.co/VjpzqwT/beurs-amsterdam-083-003.jpg

    Henry Hudson's ship: https://i.ibb.co/3p09hTG/Header-Halve-Maen-Foto-Westfries-Museum-Benno-Ellerbroek-Culturele-Agenda.jpg

    Origin of the Dollar:
    www.dutchancestrycoach.com/content/daalder-dollar-how-dutch-influenced-american-english

    On the origin of declaration of independence:
    https://news.wisc.edu/was-declaration-of-independence-inspired-by-dutch/

    A company richer than Apple, Facebook and Google combined: https://dutchreview.com/culture/history/how-rich-was-the-dutch-east-india-company/

    Manhattan before the Dutch came:
    http://googlemapsmania.blogspot.com/2015/11/50-maps-exploring-history-of-new-york.html?m=1

    The Rigging House at 120 William Street, the last remaining Dutch building of New Amsterdam. Demolished around 1850.
    https://i.ibb.co/cJCLgQs/Rigging-House-motif.jpg

  43. The Island at the Center of the World: The Epic Story of Dutch Manhattan and the Forgotten Colony That Shaped America https://g.co/kgs/b44UMz

  44. Imho, what makes william of orange so great is his conciensciousness. At the moment of truth he chose rightiousness and honour instead of his own interests. He had a lot to loose going against Phillip II of Spain, he could have just going along, doing his sovereigns bidding, but he chose to do what is right and correct instead of doing what would be the easy route. He funded a lot of the mercinaries himself, he lost two brothers in the battles and not to mention he was killed by an assassins bullet for following his conscience. As the Dutch where internally divided he also functioned as a kind of ducktape keeping it all more or less together.
    He trully was the Father of our fatherland as without him we would either speak Spanish or French by now.

  45. You have informed yourself very well. You can see a part of this history in the movie The Admiral (Admiral Michiel the Ruyter). Its on youtube with English subs.

  46. The dog at Willem van Oranje's feet (effigy on grave) is his pug dog, 'Pompey', who once saved him from assassination by barking in the night.

  47. The reason why the new Dutch Republic needed a nobleman as a Stadhouder is because they needed somebody who would be taken seriously internationally. A stadhouder would need to have audiences with ambassadors and correspond with foreign head of states, after all, and they would never speak as equals, let alone bend the knee to some jumped up butcher, baker or candlestick maker. This is why the rebels had, after the murder on Willem van Oranje, offered the stadtholdership to Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester and close associate of Queen Elizabeth I of England when he came to offer his help (because the enemy of my enemy is my friend, etc.). He was stadhouder voor three years before returning to England. He wasn't a succes, because he forbade the trade with the enemy, and the Dutch lifeblood is trade, enemy or not.

  48. 'In de ban van de Ring' is the name of the Lord of the Rings, not just the first part, The Fellowship. 'In de ban van de Ring' means literally, 'In thrall/under the spell of the Ring'. The Steward of Gondor is translated into 'Stadhouder van Gondor'.

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